Stock Foto "View"Irina Dmitrov, Philologist
In the language there are neutral and humiliating national nicknames. The latter refers to the word "katsap" having a long history. I live in Kazakhstan and never heard of this word. After the publication of my article, I received a lot of comments and understood what this word means and why it is so common today in Ukraine.
In the dictionary V. Dalya, it is said: "South Russian nickname given by Malorus Velikorusam."
As "conversationally reduced" this word is mentioned at T. Efremova. In the explanatory dictionary of D. Ushakov there is a reference to the origin of the word from the Arab Kassab - "Butcher", indicating the "pre-revolutionary bloody". E. Onatsky in the Ukrainian Small Encyclopedia represents "Katsap" as a derivative from the Tatar "Butcher", "Reznik".
The theory of Turkic origin belongs to D. Yavornitsky. "Working in the archive of the Ministry of Justice in Moscow, he wrote," I found several Ukrainian documents of the middle of the XVIII century, in which the word "katsap" was written not with the letter "C", but with the letter "C", that is, not "KatsAP ", And" Kasup ". By turning to the archival documents to the languages of the natives of Central Asia, I learned that Sartov (i.e. Uzbeks) have the word "cassab", "Kasup", which literally means "butcher" and in the portable "Gitsel" (Lgoroder ). From here, I conclude that the current word "Katsap" is not at all Russian, but ... Tatar origin, as the words "money", "Homut", "Chest" and others, which, however, are considered with us for the abandonment of pure Moscow . Walking further, I admit that I was originally with the score of "Casup" called Moskali Tatars in the sense of "rapists" ... From the Muscovites, the word "Katsap" could be listed for Ukrainians in the era of the Moscow Boyars in Ukraine, in the XVII Art., After the hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky "
Academician S. Efremov made his conclusion: "To find consonance for the Ukrainian word" Katsap "in the Turkic adverbs, there is no need to contact the Sartah Turkmen language; The word is, in the literal sense and portable, it turned out, apparently, from the long-time distribution and other Turks, who were in cultural cooperation with South Rus, namely: in Polovtsy, Majualazie Seljuks, Crimean Tatars, as well as Lithuanian Karaim. "
The author further gives examples: so, in Turkish, the expression "Adam Kassabi" means "fierce man, despot", "Kassapchi" from Karaimov - "Palach"; "Housad" in the Language of Crimean Tatars - "Butcher, Strajor". In addition, the word "katsap" with the same meaning has long been known in the languages of many Eastern Turkish tribes. And since Zaporizhia in the XVII century, and then the Azovia and Crimea in the XVIII century were under the oppression of the Ottoman Empire and later Turkey, the Word could well be perceived not only from Moskale, but also from the Turks Crimean Tatars.
In the modern Kazakh language, many words are preserved with the above-mentioned basis: қhasyap - meat caregiver; қasaptau - cut the carcass to small pieces, cut out; Kazaphana - slaughterhouse, meat stall, slaughterhouse; Kazapshi - Butcher. Note - not in the meaning of the "villain".
In the modern language, the word "katsap" as a dismissive nickname of Russians in the course of the Poles, Ukrainians, Belarusians and even in the south of Russia. For centuries, his users have developed a very negative image of Russian: "The real katsap drinks and swears, including how much in vain in writing words into three or five letters." Tell me why.
So, the word "katsap" Arabic - Tatar - South Russian, Polish, Ukrainian. How did its value changed throughout the time?
Arab "Butchers and Rezniki" in other territories turned into "warriors". In the XV-XVII centuries, the Russian warrior has always had an endless sequer with him. The Archers of Ivan the Terrible were armed with sequirs with crescent-shaped blades similar to the butcher's ax.
After taking Kazan, Ivan Grozny Russians staged a real massacre in Kazan. After the Kazan tragedy, the Tatar word "Cassap" (butcher) began to be applied to the local population towards Russian conquerors.
Tatar nationalism Two decades ago, it was based on the accusation of Russians in the siege of Kazan and supported the slogans "I remember 1552", the Tatar nationalists annually celebrate the unofficial "day of memory of the defenders of Kazan", considering the Kazan Khanate to peaceful, and the Moscow Principality is aggressive. The Tatar intelligentsia was periodically raised the question of the construction of the monument to the fallen defenders of Kazan from the troops of Ivan Grozny.
The 1990s and the 2000s were marked by contradictory assessments of the capture of Kazan. So, the literary critic Vadim Kolinov noted on this occasion the following: "By the way, now some Kazan Tatars speak with angry accusations that they, they say, Ivan Grozny won. This is not the fact of historical, because they were sitting in the throne a stranger - a descendant of Genghis Khan with his Mongolian associates. Ivan Grozny took the power of the dyeing remnants of the Mongolian Empire in his hands, and did not fight with those who are now called by Tatars "(Vadim Kolinov," Great War of Russia ").
Another point of view was expressed by Dr. Historical Sciences R.G. Fahrutdinov - in the history textbook, he regarded the policy, which was led by the Moscow Principality, occupying, and Kazan Khanatey described as a sacrifice of the imperial ambition of Ivan Grozny, who was distinguished by his immoral life and human-naughty actions, and in relation to the people conquered by him conducted the policies of extermination. R. Fahrutdinov also paid attention to the cruelty of Russian troops in relation to the Tatar population and looting during and after the capture of Kazan.
In Russian, the word "katsap" was used as a hurt nickname parties to the church split and was distributed from Russian Old Believers, compactly residing in Moldova and the southern part of the local population, primarily in villages.
In some villages inhabited by different Russians, the Old Believers called Nikonian "Katsapai", at the same time V.I. Dal leads the form "Kotsap" as the Tula and Kursk name of the splitters. According to this version, the word "Katsap" fell into the population of the Pridnepria from Russia itself as a hurt nickname of one of the parties to the Russian church split and here was associated with Russians in general.
The word "katsap" received widespread in the conversational language of Eastern Ukraine only in the XVIII century. Initially, in Ukraine, the katsaps called the voracious Russian servants, determined on the trip in Ukraine after reuniting with Russia. Later, the word began to mean any Russian in general, and the "servants" dubbed "Moskali".
The word "katsap" was particularly loved by Ukrainians due to the comparison of Russian with a goat (although in the Ukrainian language the word "goat" does not carry a negative meaning, as in Russian) - there is even a saying "God created the Tsap (goat), and Chort - Katsapa. "
The etymological dictionary of the Ukrainian language says that "the word is formed from the" DAC "with the help of a component of ka as a humorous designation of Russians, wearing long beards. The adopted etymology, according to M. Fasmer, dates back to the expression "like the DAC" due to the fact that "Breet Ukrainians bearded Russian seemed to be a goat."
However, it is unlikely that the word could appear in this way - as in Russian (where there is no word "DAC"), and in Ukrainian (where there is no word "how": "As a goat" in Ukrainian will be "Yak DAC"). This is an interesting example of word consonance, no more. For example, the name Galina comes from the Latin Gallina - chicken. But the woman with the same name does not compare with a poultry.
Linguists consider another option of origin - from Moldovan "ka" (as) and "DAC" (goat). There are still echoes of this word in the concept of KatsaPetovka, Katsapurvivka - so in the south of Ukraine they call settlements with most Russian residents (in other areas "Katsapetta" means just a "honeycomb village").
In the Donetsk region there is a town of the district value of Uglegorsk, who until 1958 was called Hatspeetovka. It is possible that its previous name in various versions is used as the name of a certain settlement located in the wilderness in the "deadline of civilization". Word "Hatspeetovka" in the go - June 23, 2011 President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk, arguing about the Red Flag, used this word: "But we have a hazartetovka ... We act depending on emotions, and not depending on the law and civilizational processes in world. The political culture of our political elite is lower than Waterlinia. "
The word "katsap" is fixed in literary works. "The damned katsaps, as I learned after I learned, eat even soup with cockroaches," wrote N.V. Gogol in the story "Ivan Fedorovich Shponka and his aunt", investing these words in the mouth of one of their characters. It is mentioned in the story of "Cossacks" L.N. Tolstoy, in which the Cossacks refer to Ukrainians with Khokhlami, and Russians - katsapa.
The word showed a persistent negative sense since ancient times: In 1918, the postcard "Ten Recove Sideways More than Divachams" was released, on which a unwashed-unwashed man with a balalaica, who received a pink under the rear of the female female leg, and the postcard also the Council "Nikoli is not Kikhai Katspa "(" Never love Katspa ").
Although the origin of the word belongs to the XVII century, with bitter irony it can be noted that the Association "Katsap-Russian" has strengthened its negative importance since the 1920s and correlates with such events as the exaggeration, scattering and holoomor.
You can also give an example from the biography of the historian of Grushevsky - the first chairman of the Central Rada, who was subjected to repression in the USSR, - about his stay in Lviv since 1892: "At the end of the university, he was sent to Lviv. The city was not a Russian, but Austria-Hungarian. There, Grushevsky taught the history of Malorussia. Austria here had a strong influence on him - he became a convinced Muscovory hatering. So explained the origin of the word "katsap" (as a executioner on a slaughter, like a butcher ...). On this explanation, you can understand how he belonged to Moskali ... "Moskali" is Russian soldiers who came to Malorosia and are here with an invaders. "
However, these "occupiers" provided military aid to the ancestors of Ukrainians since B. Khmelnitsky's uprising in 1648, when he asked Russia to protect against the Poles.
And what to "Moskalei", then from "Katsapov" is quite close. But about them a separate conversation.
According to the definition of the "intelligent dictionary" Vladimir Daly (1851), the Katsap is "the nickname given by small gods, Moskal, but the latter means most of the Russian soldier, the military."
Katsap and Moskal: Nuances
That is not any katsap - Moskal, and not all Moskal - Katsap. Katsap is the designation of a civilian Russian person, and this epithet is awarded both the peasants and the faces of more respectable estates. It is an exoatenonym, a completely similar Khokhlu - the term, under which Veligors from the 17th century knew all Ukrainians again without the difference in the estates.
Moskal is a man in military uniform, serviced by the king. Here, by the way, it is necessary to mention that until the time of Catherine, the Great Ukrainians did not take into recruits. They had their own Cossack militia, and it was believed that they serve in her. Therefore, in the 18th century in Ukraine, the concept that the Ukrainian did not serve in the Russian army, and the one who serves in it is Moskal. Consequently, the Moskalem could be an officer of any origin - German, Polish, even Malorossky.
In a broader sense, Moskal is at all the servant of the Russian monarch. Moskali steel for Ukrainians and Ukrainians such as graphs Brothers Razumovsky - Alexey, the favorite of Empress Elizabeth, and Kirill, the last hetman of Ukraine - or the brothers Counts Alexey and Ilya Bezborodko, Employees of Catherine Great. All because we went to uniform and lived in St. Petersburg. But they were not katspa for Ukrainians.
Origin of the word. Goat…
Russian-German philologist Max Fasmer believed that Katsap comes from the Ukrainian word "DAC" - Kozl. The prefix "Ka-" means "how." Consequently, the "Yak DAC" - "like a goat." According to the Fasmer, such a nickname was given for the external differences between the Russians from the Ukrainians.
Ukrainians were made to shave the chin, leaving long mustache. Russians to Peter of the first beard did not shake, and after Peter, Bradobrius was established only among the nobles, the other estates were allowed to wear beards. And the Velikorous peasants even forbidden then to shave them, so that you can always be distinguished by the appearance of the serf man. By the way, Ukrainians were not serfs until 1783, and this circumstance also contributed to their sense of excellence.
Thus, it turns out that the katsap is a direct antonym of the word Khokhol, which arose thanks to an external distinctive feature. As the Russians allocated in Ukrainians to the addiction to the wearing Chubov, so Ukrainians have Russians - the custom of growing beard.
... or butcher (in the sense of stigro)
But with this version, the Ukrainian nationalist historical historian of the late 19th - early 20th century Dmitry Yavornitsky was not agreed. "Working in the archive of the Ministry of Justice in Moscow," he wrote, "I found several Ukrainian documents of the middle of the 18th century, in which the word Katsap was not written with the letter C, and with the letter C, that is, not a katsap, and Casak. After turning to the archival documents to the tongue of the natives of Central Asia, I learned that Sartov (that is, sedentary Uzbeks) there is the word "cassab", "Casup", which literally means the butcher and in the portable - Loklorilever.
From here, I conclude that the current word Katsap is not Russian, and the Eastern, plausible - Tatar origin, as the words of money, the chomst, the chest and others, which, however, are considered with us for the limitation of purely Moscow. Going further, I admit that I was originally nicknamed Casups called the Moskali Tatar in the sense of rapists, swords. From the moskale, the Word Katsap could be brought to the Ukrainians in the era of the Moscow Boyars, in the 17th century, after Hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky. "
But there is no evidence that this word was used in Russian. Therefore, if Javornitsky (and with him, according to most modern philologists) right, then this word passed into the Ukrainian language directly from Turkic languages in the value of the nickname expressing both fear and contempt. And after joining the tsarist empire, Ukrainians awarded this nickname Russian.
In Ukraine, especially in the eastern part of it, there always had enough immigrants from other peoples. In the XVII century, Turks who brought with them the word "Casak", which they denote the butchers who manage large axes were appeared. At the same time, the warriors of the Russian army who participated in the Russian-Turkish war, just used huge birds and sequirs. After noting this fact, Zaporizhzhya Cossacks began to call Russian warriors katspa. In addition, in the Turkic and Tatar language was the word "cassab", also consonant with the katsap, which was called thugs and robbers. The Tatars, which turned out to be in Ukraine, were horrified by local about the virtuoso-erecting tops of Russian Sagittari. So it is likely that this word Ukrainians took in their tartar.
Another version of the origin of the word "katsap" is quite offensive, and, moreover, it does not stand criticism. According to it, the word "katsap" is formed from two - "as" and "DAC". The last Ukrainian is called Kozlov. So it turns out that the Ukrainians compared Russians with goats. According to this version, the "katsapa" befelling, but the comfortable Don Cossacks called the bearded warriors of Muscovy, who were in their territory in the XVII century. But since there is no word "how" in Ukrainian, but there is only a "yak", then it turns out that the bearded Russians would be called "Yakspai", and not "katsapa".
In the dictionary of Daly "Katsap" designates a splitter - a man who has lived from the Orthodox Church in Russia living in the Kursk or Tula province. In the XVIII century, this word firmly entered the lexicon of the eastern Ukrainians.
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