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Hello, my name is Cescidi Megan.

Epilepsy: symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment

"Hello, my name is Cescidi Megan.

I am nine years old, I am sick epilepsy. I came up with a purple day, because I wanted to tell everyone about this disease, especially the epilepsy is different, and that people with epilepsy are the same as everyone else ... "

This is a fragment of the message written by Kesside Megan (Cassidy Megan) - a nine-year-old girl suffering from epilepsy.

Epilepsy: symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment

For his short life, she felt an unusual attitude towards her peers and adults. To dispel myths about the disease, in 2008, Kesside came up with a "purple day" (Purple Day). The idea visited it at the moment when members of the Association of Patients with epilepsy of New Scotland were lecture on this disease at her school, and she decided to send them their message.

Today we are talking about epilepsy.

Epilepsy in matters and answers

What is epilepsy and how does it manifest?

This is a chronic disease of the nervous system, which is based on a violation of the functioning of the brain due to excess electrical activity of neurons. Accompanied by a periodic appearance of specific attacks.

What happens epilepsy? Is it a congenital or acquired disease?

There are various classifications. If we talk about the reason that causes the development of epilepsy, it is isolated forms with an unidentified (idiopathic and cryptogenic) and with an established (symptomatic) cause.

How can MRI help patients with epilepsy? Speaks a radiologist "MRI Expert Sochi" Zeeva Zarema Bardudinovna

In some cases, epilepsy with an unclear cause is the result of genetic changes that determine the special functioning of neurons. At the same time, the view that this disease certainly is inherited is incorrect.

About acquired epilepsy, they speak when it develops as a result of any other, independent disease, and occurs, for example, with anomalies, injuries (including generic), brain neoplasms; infectious diseases; circulatory disorders and metabolism; Toxic effects on the brain (alcohol, narcotic substances, salts of heavy metals, some medicines and / or incorrect reception) and a number of others.

How does epilepsy develop?

Epileptic attacks are diverse and divided into several species, with characteristic symptoms.

So-called partial simple. The convulsions of various parts of the body are noted (hands, corners of the mouth), with a possible gradual spread of half of the body. Sync can be marked.

Epilepsy: symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment

Partial complex . In the period, the seizure in the patient marked the altered state of consciousness, he does not realize what happens to him. In addition to convulsion, there may be hallucinations, a change in mood (fear, angiveness), possibly the appearance of obsessive repetitive actions (for example, smoking lips).

Generalized. The seizures are always accompanied by the loss of consciousness. The duration of the attack may vary from a second to a few minutes and manifest itself from single twitching in individual muscles or short-term fading, until the muscles decreases with subsequent injury.

One of the varieties of generalized seizures - Tonic-clinical. Manifestations: cramps, and after - the voltage of all body muscles. After 1-2 minutes of the seizure usually ends, breathing is restored, a person falls asleep for a short time, or comes into consciousness, but does not remember what happened; May be sick head, marriage.

Absans. A variety of generalized attacks without seizures and cramps. They are celebrated in epilepsy mainly in childhood. Short-term and manifest themselves with "fading", loss of consciousness, which is practically not noticeable from the side, so it seems that the child just distracted. Muscle activity is possible: tremor muscles, twitching the eyelids. Sometimes surrounding do not notice such attacks.

How long does the epileptic seizure last?

The range is usually from a second to a few minutes. With repeated or continuous attacks that continue more than 5 minutes, or between which a person cannot fully achieve its normal mental and neurological state, they speak about the epileptic status - dangerous to health and life.

Who is in the risk group?

Risk factors include hereditary burden on the part of parents, oxygen starvation in the process of childbirth, infectious pathology of the nervous system, repeated cases of cramps during fever, brain injury and some others.

Provoking the development of epilepsy moments are psycho-emotional overvoltage, stress; climate change; overwork; lack or excess sleep; bright light; taking alcohol, stimulants of the central nervous system and a number of other medicines; overheating, insolation (sun irradiation), etc.

What is dangerous epilepsy?

During the attack it is possible to obtain injury, burn, getting into an accident, etc. Especially dangerous attack by the elderly, when he can lead to serious violations of heart rhythm, breathing: as a result, coma is possible, as well as the death of the patient.

In some cases, there is no effect when applying medicines. This situation may be one of the testimony for surgical intervention.

A small percentage of patients needs permanent maintenance, they are incapable.

A number of patients have disorders of mood, behavior, intelligence.

There is a certain risk of suicides, especially with a combination of epilepsy with depression.

What can not be done by a person with epilepsy? What to pay attention to?

At the same time, the ailment should not: engage in any kind of sport, in which there is even a small chance of injury (sports in principle is not contraindicated, but this moment should be discussed with their attending physician); expose yourself to great physical and mental loads; smoking; lock the doors in the room; Take a bath (better replace it with a shower); use a sauna or bath, and in hygienic purposes - water of high temperature; drink alcohol drinks; Hide your ailments (if the closest environment of the house and at work will be aware of it and on effective ways to assist, it will be timely and correct).

In the house where there is a sick epilepsy, it is recommended to eliminate sharp corners, acquire a suitable furniture with smooth rounded circuits.

Doors in the bathroom, the toilet should only open out. Do not make internal valves and locks on them.

It is necessary to reliably protect the sources of fire. Heating appliances need to be removed into a safe inaccessible place.

It is necessary to individually eliminate any other potential household sources of danger.

The patient is advisable to be in the room not one.

With frequent attacks, use means for trauma prevention - in particular, special safety helmets.

As epilepsy affects ...

... on psyche and personality . There may not be noted any features. At the same time, such changes are possible.

For example, before the attack in a person in some cases, anxiety, intensity, depression or irritability arises.

When attacking, behavioral disorders, mood disorder, impaired thinking, illusion and hallucinations can be marked. In absissues, the confidence of consciousness and others may be observed.

There are disorders and after the attack. They manifest themselves as a change in consciousness and perception immediately after the attack. Occasionally, psychosis with hallucinations and illusions, often paranoid, which can last for hours, days, and in some cases - weeks.

There are also intergreacy psychoses that may have a recurrent or chronic course.

Among the mood disorders, depression is most often observed.

... for memory and mental abilities. Often, patients complain about the worsening memory. Sometimes the cause of this is organic brain defeat, causing an epilepsy. Also, the cause may be frequent epileptic discharges in a number of patients who do not always lead to the appearance of attacks, but it can break the memory.

Despite frequent complaints about poor memory, psychological tests can not always confirm the presence of significant violations. It is possible that they are not sufficiently sensitive to weakly pronounced violations. However, it is possible that some patients may experience increased anxiety in relation to easy memory disorders found by most people.

... for life expectancy

The imbrees on the duration of life depends on its shape, gravity, adequacy and effectiveness of the treatment, the presence of associated pathologies and some other factors.

Diagnosis of epilepsy

For diagnosis, a detailed survey is carried out and the examination of the patient. To confirm / clarify the diagnosis, such research methods are used as EEG / video EEG (electroencephalography), magnetic resonance and computed tomography, neuropsychological testing. Sometimes, when the arrangement of the epileptogenic region is not clear enough, methods such as single-photon emission computed tomography (Officon), positron-emission tomography, magnetorencephalography are used.

Read more about positron emission tomography, you can read here

Obligatory to consult an ophthalmologist; biochemical blood tests; Cardiology research and doppler; Consultation of the psychiatrist (by testimony).

How to help the patient epilepsy?

What are the approaches to the treatment of epilepsy?

Modern approaches include both drug and surgical treatment methods. Antiepileptic preparations are used, provoking factors are eliminated, mental changes are corrected, psychosocial rehabilitation is carried out. In case of unsuccessful medicinal therapy, neurosurgical operations are performed.

Treatment of epilepsy systematic, continuous and long.

Which doctor to contact with suspected epilepsy?

Epilepsy specialists, several. First of all, it is a neurologist, as well as a narrow specialist - an epileptologist. If it is necessary to perform surgical intervention - neurosurgeon. If mental disorders arise - a psychiatrist.

Make an appointment with a doctor-epileptologist here

Attention: the service is not available in all cities

Is it possible to cure epilepsy or is it a sentence?

No, this is not a sentence. In some cases, it is completely curable, anticorrdive therapy is carried out in the rest.

What can be said about the forecast of the disease?

It depends, among other things, from the duration of the disease, its causes, carefulness of the implementation of the doctor's recommendations.

What if a person has an epileptoid attack?

Follow these steps:

- Put a person side, unbutton collar, free from close clothes;

- if there is a removable prosthesis or other foreign object in the oral cavity, immediately remove it;

- Turn the person's head side;

- with vomit hold a person in the side position;

- To prevent language oxidation, roll a soft cloth roller and insert it into the mouth;

- remove dangerous items;

- Call an ambulance;

- Mark the duration of the attack;

- keep calm.

Epilepsy: symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment

What should not do:

- use items to determine the jaws;

- give medicines or liquids;

- disturb the person after an attack, if he sleeps;

- Panach.

Prevention of epilepsy

Events for the prevention of symptomatic epilepsy:

Conducted during the planning and pregnancy itself in a woman.

It is necessary to observe the gynecologist, if necessary, to treat infections that may adversely affect the fetus; eliminate other risk factors (toxins, bad habits, stress); Four rationally. Square physical exertion are needed, sufficient motor activity. Treatment of any pathologies, including foci of infection (sinusitis, pyelonephritis, parasitic diseases, etc.). It is important to conduct a qualified objectiveness.

In childhood, prevention of infections is needed, including the nervous system striking (meningitis, encephalitis), cranial injuries.

In adults - prevention of vascular pathologies (brain strokes), as well as internal diseases.

What is the difference between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke? To read here

With idiopathic epilepsy, it is almost impossible to prevent the beginning of the attacks. With these forms, you need to talk about secondary prophylaxis, i.e. Epilepsy attacks themselves. It includes: regular, constant and continuous reception of drugs in an individually selected dosage; control of therapy (EEG, measuring the concentration of the drug in the blood); compliance with the mode of sleep and wakefulness; elimination of bad habits; in the presence of sensitivity to visual, light incentives for EEG - avoiding light flashes, restricting the TV and work on the computer, the use of sunglasses; elimination of the influence of any factors provoking the occurrence of an attack; Preventing nervous overload and stressful effects.

With epilepsy, potentially hazardous activities are also excluded: high-altitude and underground work, work with fire, water, mechanisms, driving transport.

************************************************** ********************

Epilepsy, Sidrom Down, Tuberculosis ... Some distant diseases are dedicated to their dates. They should not be just dates, as they are just one day a year. People who have these disorders are next to us every day. Let's see them not only on days dedicated to their problems, and always. Let's see for their problem / feature / person's illness - the same as we. Of the one who did not choose his destiny, but has the right to live, develop, be happy.

Text: Enver Aliyev

Publication date January 14, 2021. Updated February 16 2021.

Definition of the disease. Causes of the disease

Epilepsy - This is a chronic brain disease, characterized by repeated spontaneous attacks (paroxysms), which arise as a result of excess neural discharges. Clinically epilepsy is manifested by convulsions and changes in consciousness (up to his loss) [four] [eleven] . Epilepsy can be both an independent disease and a symptom of another pathology. [9] .

Epilepsy

According to WHO, the epilepsy in an active form suffers around the world about each 4-10 people out of 1000 - this is one of the most common neurological diseases. [20] . In low-income countries, epilepsy occurs more often, which is associated with an increased risk of getting malaria and neurocystserical, less developed health structure and increased injury at an accident. WHO argues that almost 80% of people with epilepsy live in low- and middle-income countries [20] . At the same time, with proper diagnosis and treatment, most patients with epilepsy can live without attacks and deterioration in the quality of life.

Epilepsy is known to humanity for a long time - the first testimonies about it belong to 4000 BC. The disease is a serious social problem, as the lack of informing about epilepsy contributes to lack of understanding, the fear of symptoms among the surrounding and discrimination of patients.

The disease is manifested in the form of short-term involuntary cramps in any part of the body, or convulsions affect the entire body. Sometimes the attacks are accompanied by the loss of consciousness and loss of control over the intestinal functions or bladder. The seizures may be shape both minor failures in memory and muscle spasms and severe, long convulsions.

People with epilepsy more often get bruises and fractures associated with seizures. They also have anxiety disorders and depression. In addition, patients with epilepsy increased the risk of premature death as a result of falls, drowning and burns.

Falls in epilepsy

Causes of epilepsy

There are many factors leading to the occurrence of spontaneous bioelectric activity (neuronal discharges), which lead to repeated epileptic supplies. The reasons for epilepsy include structural, genetic, infectious, metabolic, immune and unknown etiological factors, for example:

  • some genetic diseases;
  • Brain damage in the predimentary period and during birth (hypoxia or generic injury, low body weight at birth);
  • congenital defects of brain development;
  • Head injuries;
  • stroke;
  • infections - meningitis, encephalitis, neurocystirocosis;
  • Brain tumors.

We provoke an attack of epilepsy in some of its kinds there may be a shortage of sleep, admission of alcohol, hyperventilation, sensory (sensual incentives): flashing light, temperature changes, loud sounds.

Depending on what the epileptic attacks causes, several types of pathology are distinguished:

  • idiopathic (primary, or congenital);
  • symptomatic (secondary, or focal);
  • Cryptogenic epilepsy (seizures arise in the absence of focal changes in the brain according to electroencephalography, are not suitable under the criteria of idiopathic form, but there is no evidence of their symptomatic nature).

When idiopathic epilepsy There is always a hereditary predisposition to the attacks: the disease is diagnosed with blood relatives, or there were repeated losses of the consciousness of the fading, a prolonged enuresis. Scientists have identified about 500 genes that can carry information about this mutation, and the type of inheritance of these genes can be as an autosomal dominant (when a painful gene may manifest itself in each generation, suppressing a healthy gene) and recessive (when the disease gene is suppressed healthy and The manifestation of the disease is possible with the carrier of the painful gene of mother and father) [15] [19] .

Clinical manifestations of idiopathic epilepsy begin in childhood. Most often, structural changes in the brain are absent, but there is a high activity of neurons. There is no pronounced cognitive defect. The forecast for this form of epilepsy is more often favorable, patients feel well on anti-epileptic preparations, which significantly reduce the number of attacks and allow for a long-term remission.

For Symptomatic epilepsy There is always an organic cause - cysts, brain tumors, malformations, neurological infections, strokes, as well as brain changes as a result of narcotic or alcohol addiction.

It is also possible to manifest symptomatic epilepsy in the framework of hereditary diseases - they are known about 160. More often such diseases suggest mental retardation with an autosomal-recessive type of inheritance when gene carriers are both parents .

For Cryptogenic epilepsy Select the cause of the occurrence does not succeed even with a very careful examination. Cryptogenic epilepsy is one of the most complex chronic CNS pathologies, the development of which is due to unidentified or uncertain reasons. The disease is manifested regularly repetitive specific seizures. A long flow causes the attachment of mental disorders, cognitive abilities decrease, psychotic symptoms are joined.

It should be understood that the appearance of a single convulsive attack although a warning symptom does not always speak about the presence of epilepsy. The doctor has the right to consider this diagnosis, if the patient has happened two or more attack.

Warning

When you find similar symptoms, consult your doctor. Do not self-medicate - it is dangerous for your health!

Symptoms of epilepsy

The main clinical manifestation of epilepsy - Epileptic paroxins: attacks that occur due to pathological (too intense or too slowed) electrical discharge in the brain [eleven] . The attack is usually short-lived, stereotypene (has characteristic repetitive features) and is manifested by violation of behavior, emotions, motor or sensory functions [21] .

By duration and possible cause of occurrence:

  • long (epileptic status);
  • random (coming unexpectedly without provoking factor);
  • cyclic (arising over periodic intervals of time);
  • Provocable epileptic paroxysms (arising from the impact of exogenous or endogenous factors or sensitive stimulation).
Symptoms of epilepsy

The epileptic attack may be a single or series of attacks, between which a person does not come into itself and is not completely restored. The attack may be accompanied by convulsions or leak without them.

On clinical manifestations allocate generalized and partial seizures .

  1. The most common variety of generalized seizures - Tonic-clonic (convulsive) attack . Against the background of full health, a person loses consciousness, falls, the body is strung up - a symmetric tonic tension of the body occurs, there may be a bite of language, short-term breathing delay, then the muscles begin to twitch (clonic cramps), sometimes involuntary urination or defecation. The duration of the attack is up to 5 minutes.
  2. Clonic seizures . They are rare and manifested by muscle spasms - repeating twist.
  3. Tonic seizures . They manifest themselves with a sudden stress of muscles, breathing difficult because of overvoltage, the patient rolls his eyes and falls (if the attack found it in the standing position). In case of falling injuries.
  4. ATONICAL (AStatic) seizures , characterized by nozzous loss of consciousness with a sudden loss of muscle tone and the same rapid recovery.
  5. Children are most often detected Absans : A child for a few seconds freezes, but at the same time can make some movements.
  6. For Atypical absans Unlike classic, gradual start and ending. Most often, they are accompanied by nodes heads, slopes of the body, cascading drops. Muscle augmentation is usually expressed as minimal.
  7. Mioclonia Manifested by short-term neurotic twitching muscle group.
Tonic and Clonic Phase Phase

Partial seizures Also called focal or local attacks. The attacks can proceed in different ways depending on which section of the brain affects the violation and how far it applies. Symptoms include loss of orientation, motion disorders, sensations (including vision, hearing and taste), mood or other cognitive functions.

К unclassified epileptic supplies Approaches with clinical manifestations that are not related to the above categories, for example, attacks with rhythmic movement of eyes, chewing movements by jaws and swimming movements.

Pathogenesis of epilepsy

Currently, there is a hypothesis of epilepsy occurrence, including a complex of neurochemical, neuromorphological and neurophysiological disorders, leading to the development of the disease.

One of the mechanisms for the formation of epileptic activity is a cellular disruption between brake and exciting brain-eating brain systems. This leads to the appearance and distribution of exciting postsynaptic potential (i.e., electrical discharges) [eleven] [12] .

Electric activity of the brain

A common factor contributing to the clinical manifestation of attacks is a structural organic brain damage . The brain defeat forms the focus of epileptic activity in the zone surrounding the destruction [21] .

The focus of epileptic activity is a neural network having in its composition Epileptic neurons . These neurons are characterized by the instability of membranes, which contributes to their spontaneous or conducted electrical excitation, which as a result causes the symptoms of the epipridge.

Between adjacent neurons of the bark under normal conditions there is mutual (collateral) braking. The destruction of the portion of neurons causes an imbalance that leads to an increase in the excitation processes in the crust. It shifts the electrolyte balance, and potassium ions accumulate in the intercellular space. In the norm, the excess of potassium ions is absorbed by the Cells of Glia. But the excess of potassium causes the growth of glia cells, which leads to their excessive growing (glio) and violation of the normal relationship of neurocytes among themselves [21] .

As a result of the above mechanisms is formed epileptic focus , whose neurons constantly generate their pathological rhythm and gradually subordinate to him the remaining brain cells. Therefore, the main strategy for the treatment of epilepsy is the suppression of paroxysmal activity of neuriles of an epileptic foculation, which is achieved by the long-term use of anti-epileptic drugs that affect the exchange of basic neurotiator brain systems [eleven] [12] .

Classification and stage of development of epilepsy

The classification of epileks includes several levels:

  • Level 1: The type of attacks (focal, generalized or with an unknown start) is determined.
  • Level 2: Determination of the type of epilepsy (focal, generalized, combined or unknown). Focus primarily on clinical manifestations and availability of changes to the EEG.
  • 3 level: Epileptic syndrome is installed [16] . This is helped by the EEG, CT and physical examination data, take into account the patient's age, the presence of comorbide factors (mental disorders, including cognitive dysfunction) and provoking factors.
  • 4 level: Installed etiology disorder [eighteen] .
Types of epilepsy

There are several manifestations of epilepsy: idiopathic epilepsy in which various types of seizures are the main and main manifestation of the disease, and Epileptic syndrome When the seizures are one of the symptoms of another disease.

Also epilepsy as a disease or syndrome can manifest itself:

  • Single seizures one form or another;
  • serial seizures which follow each other with short intervals (from minutes to hours); During these intervals, consciousness is returned to the patient;
  • in the shape of epileptic status - The state occurs for a long time, sometimes for several years. It is characterized by changing behavior, consciousness, motor functions. Changes caused by permanent epileptic discharges of brain neurons, which is confirmed by electroencephalographic methods. In a narrower sense, the epileptic status is called a seizure, which lasts more than 30 minutes or repeated seizures, between which the patient does not return to consciousness. A suddenly emerged epileptic status of generalized tonic-clonic seizures is a life-threatening state that requires emergency hospitalization.

Epilepsy and epileptic syndromes are divided into the following types of the Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International Anti-Epileptic League (1989): [21]

  1. Localization associated with localization (focal, local, partial) epilepsy and syndromes.
  2. Generalized epilepsy and syndromes.
  3. Epilepsy and syndromes that are not specific about whether they are focal or generalized.
  4. Special syndromes.

Localized epilepsy and syndromes

  1. Idiopathic:
  2. A benign childhood epilepsy with multi-temporal spikes;
  3. Children's epilepsy with occipital paroxysms;
  4. Primary reading epilepsy.
  5. Symptomatic:
  6. Chronic preventive (Kozhevnikov syndrome) of children's age;
  7. Syndromes characterized by a specific causing method;
  8. Various syndromes, the designation of which are based on the type of seas and other clinical features: temporally, lobno-, dark or occupancy-equity epilazia;
  9. Localization associated idiopathic epilepsy: Lobno-share night hereditary epilepsy.

Generalized epilepsy and syndromes

  1. Idiopathic:
  2. Benign family seizures of newborns;
  3. Benign convulsions of newborns;
  4. Benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy;
  5. Epilepsy with picnoleptic abansians of children's age;
  6. Youth epilepsy with absans;
  7. Youthful myoclonic epilepsy (Yant Syndrome);
  8. Epilepsy with large convulsive seizures in wakefulness;
  9. Other generalized idiopathic epilepsy;
  10. Epilepsy with a specific causing way.
  11. Cryptogenic:
  12. West syndrome: epilepsy with lightning, pystic seizures and infantile spasms;
  13. Lennox - Gasta syndrome;
  14. Epilepsy with myoclonic-astatic seizures;
  15. Epilepsy with myoclonic absans.
  16. Symptomatic:
  17. Nonspecific etiology;
  18. Specific syndromes.

Epilepsy and syndromes not defined as to whether they are focal or generalized

  1. With generalized or focal seizures:
  2. Seizures of newborns;
  3. Severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy;
  4. Epilepsy with continuous spike-wave complexes in slow-wave dream;
  5. Epileptic amphiasis syndrome (Landau syndrome - Cleffner);
  6. Other uncertain epilepsy.
  7. Without unambiguous generalized or focal traits.

Special syndromes

Situational-conditioned seizures:

  • Frebel convulsions
  • Isolated epileptic seizure or isolated epileptic status
  • Seizures that arise exclusively with acute metabolic or toxic violations

The epilepsy classification is constantly developing: the progress of genetics leads to the discovery of new causes of the disease.

Complications of epilepsy

With epilepsy, the following complications are possible:

  • epileptic status of generalized seizures;
  • injuries (bruises, fractures);
  • Increased intracranial pressure: accompanied by headaches of a suspension, nausea and vomiting, sometimes confusion of consciousness;
  • Brain's edema (the accumulation of fluid inside the nerve cells and in the intercellular space): characterized by the increase in neurological symptoms, it is possible to oppress the consciousness up to coma;
  • Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: in epilepsy there is a violation of the central regulation of the vascular tone, it can dramatically increase the blood pressure, which for predisposing factors (atherosclerosis, aneurysms) leads to a blood flow and ischemic stroke or rupture of the vessel wall and hemorrhage;
  • Procommbodies of intracranial veins: develops against the background of venous blood stagnation in violation of vascular regulation in the epipridge, in acute inflammation, a picture of ischemic stroke is manifested;
  • aspiration pneumonia;
  • Tel (thromboembolism of a light artery) is accompanied by a sense of air shortness, sharp increase in respiration, blood pressure drops to low numbers, a fatal outcome is possible;
  • Email's edema against the background of epileptic status;
  • Cardiogenic shock;
  • Renal failure against the background of cardiogenic shock.

Aspiration pneumonia - One of the most dangerous complications. During the attack in a patient, epilepsy may be vomiting, it can swallow the vomit and food. With aspiration pneumonia, in the initial period of the patient, the dry non-peculiar cough is worried, the total weakness and a slight increase in body temperature. In the development of complications, the temperature rises to significant numbers, the pain in the chest and chills is joined, and the cough is accompanied by a foamy mocryla with blood. After 2 weeks, an abscess is formed in light and diagnosed empya (significant accumulation of pus) pleura.

Comorbid mental disorders. Changes in psyche are considered the second characteristic clinical sign of the disease. They can be both primary due to the pathological process themselves and secondary related to the influence of media factors, as well as with side effects of medicines. Features of the personality are formed in the early stages of the disease and are traced throughout its length, including the latest stages [one] [9] [eleven] . The most typical identity changes with a certain duration of epilepsy is considered primarily the polarity of the affect: combinations of the tendency of "stick" on affective experiences (especially negatively painted), and impulsiveness with a large force of an affectative discharge. In addition, personality changes include egocentrism with a concentration of all interests on their needs and desires, accuracy, reaching pedantry, hyperbolized desire for order, hypochondriadity, combination of rudeness, aggressiveness in relation to one and ascension, increasing [14] .

Less specific in the clinical picture of persistent personality changes in epilepsy are disorders of memory and intelligence [thirteen] . In the formation of changes in the nature of patients with epilepsy, a certain role belongs to the identity reactions to the attitude of others, as well as to the awareness of their illness and its associated mental defects.

The generally accepted manifestations of epileptic disease include episodic psychosis with disorders of consciousness and psychomotor excitation, the frequency ranges from 7% to 22% and is associated with a certain type of disease. [7] .

Diagnosis of epilepsy

Diagnostic capabilities are currently very wide, they allow you to accurately establish, patient's patient epilepsy or attack is a consequence of another disorder. To do this, are carried out first of all Instrumental examinations which are crucial in the diagnosis and determination of the type of seizure.

EEG (electroencephalography) - The main method of diagnosis. In patients with epilepsy, changes in the character of the brain waves are recorded even in those moments when they do not have attacks. In case of primary circulation, it is advisable to spend a night-in eaging video monitoring to accurately answer the question of the origin of paroxysms. With a further dynamic observation, the doctor will be enough routine EEG, which should be carried out at least 1 times in 6 months [8] .

An example of EEG data: red circles highlighted zones of pathological epileptiform activity

CT and MRI brain. The fundamental methods of diagnosing epilepsy are methods of visual diagnostics - computer and magnetic resonance tomography, as well as PET - positron-emission tomography. They allow you to identify the organic substrate (tumors, cysts, vascular malformations or aneurysms) in the patient), estimate its function and structure, and sometimes reveal the foci of abnormal electrical activity that are found in epilepsy.

MRI in epilepsy

In some cases, doctors can apply experimental diagnostic methods, for example, Meg (magnetorencephalography) . The method is a form of encephalography, which allows to evaluate the structure and functions of the brain. In MEG, neurons magnetic signals are recorded, which allows you to observe the activity of the brain from different points over time. This method does not require the use of electrodes, and also allows you to estimate signals from deep brain structures, where EEG is ineffective. This method is also used as a resonant spectroscopy that allows you to identify disruption of biochemical processes in brain tissue. This survey is carried out once every 3-4 years, sometimes more often if necessary to monitor the dynamics of education.

Very important anamnesis of the disease Allowing the patient's questionable to learn the details of the beginning and development of the disease, its duration, nature of the flow, the presence of hereditary predisposition to epilepsy. Extremely important is the description of the paroxysis themselves, their frequency, description, the presence of factors contributing to the emergence of attacks. Such a fold allows the doctor to determine the type of attacks, and also assume what brain area can be amazed.

Blood tests It is necessary to be carried out at least 1 time in 3 months in order to assess the action on the patient's body with epilepsy of antiepileptic agents. In addition, patients taking salt-acid salts necessarily monitor the thrombocyte value, since thrombocytopenia (reduction of their number) is one of the possible side effects observed when receiving the hollows. Blood tests help to evaluate the doctor action of other etiological factors (infection, lead poisoning, anemia, diabetes mellitus), and also help in assessing the contribution of genetic factors.

Neuropsychological testing must be carried out at least 1 time per year to assess the contribution of comorbide mental disorders and to determine the type of disease [6] [7] . Tests estimate the properties of memory, speech, attention, the speed of thinking, the emotional sphere of the patient and other cognitive functions.

Treatment of epilepsy

The treatment of epilepsy is a complex long and dynamic process, the main purpose of which is to prevent the development of attacks. It must comply with the following principles: individuality, duration, regularity, continuity, dynamism and complexity.

Drug therapy

Anticonvulsants . In the first place in the complex treatment of epilepsy emergence of anticonvulsants [four] [five] . The basis of the treatment of patients with epilepsy is a long-term admission of anti-kvulsants - preparations of various pharmacological groups that contribute to the relief and further prevention of epipripads. These drugs include, for example, carbamazepine and lebzonal.

However, the target of therapeutic activity is not only a seizure, but also mental disorders in a patient with organic brain disease. Significant interest is the use of anti-epileptic preparations of recent generations (for example, valproids), which, in addition to anticonvulsive action, have neuroprotective and neurometabolic properties, which is especially important in epilepsy therapy with comorbide mental disorders [thirteen] [14] .

Therapy of concomitant disorders. Since epilepsy, mental disorders are very often accompanied by mental disorders (more often cognitive dysfunction), it is advisable to carry out at least two times a year by supporting therapy, including neuroprotective (for example, mexideol), liquor-growing (diakarb) and metabolic preparations - neurometabolics (nootropics, such as pantogam and nootropyl), however their appointment should be justified [15] . Efficiency and justification of the appointment of nootropov is now disputed due to insufficient effects [22] [23] . The appointment of such a course is possible only after receiving dynamic survey results.

Surgery

Treatment may include Instrumental elimination of causes of epileptic syndromes : Tumors and hemorrhages.

Operations are also applied in cases where the seizures are not amenable to drug treatment or threaten the patient's life. Deleting epileptogenic focus involves eliminating The brain section is guilty of the occurrence of epipripads, or its isolation from the rest of the brain. With partial seizures in cases where medicines do not give effect, implanted the electrostimulator, irritating the wandering nerve and the overwhelming seizures.

First aid in the attack of epilepsy

Actions that in no case It is impossible to perform during an attack of epilepsy (Despite common stereotypes):

  • apply objects (spoon, spatula) to determine the jaws of a person with an attack;
  • give medicines and liquids during an attack through the mouth;
  • try to rapidly restrain convulsive movements;
  • beat the injured on the cheeks, pour water;
  • Do artificial breath and heart massage.

During the attack it is worth putting something soft under the head, for example, a fresh jacket. Remove glasses, relax tie, After the end of the attack Turn over the person on the side (to avoid the roast of the root of the tongue). It is important to damage the time when the attack began, as information about this can be important for the attending physician.

First aid in the attack of epilepsy

Epilepsy attack is a reason for calling the ambulance. Stay with a person until it comes into consciousness, after invite your help - he will feel confused.

Forecast. Prevention

Each patient has a disease in different ways, most often the forecast depends on how early it began, as often appear and how much comorbide mental disorders are expressed. Epileptologists speak of a resistant therapeutic remission in the event that for 3-4 years the patient has any kind of attacks. In most cases, the patient returns to his usual life, continues to work, creates a family. But it must be remembered that people with epilepsy can not work at night and undesirable to change the time zone and climate. In patients with epilepsy, there are restrictions on employment - it is categorically impossible to work in a noisy stifling room, at a height, with moving mechanisms.

According to the majority of children's epileptologists, the earlier epilepsy develops and the later it is diagnosed, the worse the prognosis for the development of the child [12] [15] [17] .

If idiopathic epilepsy (hereditary deterministic) is impossible to prevent it. Prevention of symptomatic epilepsy, developing against the background of the primary pathology of the brain, is possible - for this it is necessary to avoid injuries of the head and to inhibit infectious and noncommunicable diseases of the brain. According to WHO estimates, up to 25% of the development of epilepsy can be prevented [20] .

Patients with epilepsy is important to comply with the diet: limit the consumption of fluid, seasonings, table salt, strong coffee and tea. It is important to observe the mode of the day, to go to bed in time, walking out in the fresh air, also show light physical charging.

Safety for patients with epilepsy

It should be re-equipped the house where a person with epilepsy lives: close sharp corners, remove hard objects, glass surfaces, take care of boiling water. The patient with epilepsy should not work alone.

It is recommended to use KAPU, an antiwashing pillow to sleep. Instead of the bathroom it is worth taking a shower, as one of the most frequent causes of death of patients with epilepsy - drowning in the bathroom. Other recommendations for patients with epilepsy:

  • keep a diary of drug reception;
  • Wear an informilelet and first aid instructions;
  • In the smartphone, activate the SOS function, wearing a drop sensor, transmit the GPS position of the native;
  • carry epicapka or protective rim;
  • Forbidden underwater sports and martial arts;
  • You need to swim and fish at the supervision.
Epilepsy Safety

Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases of the nervous system. Therefore, encountered with illness, patients are wondering - is it possible to cure from epilepsy forever? Unfortunately, this disease is incurable. But up to 65% of patients can live almost without seizures and other clinical symptoms, provided that they undergo the appropriate medical examination and receive proper treatment. Often, the disease itself is the cause of death, but incorrect or late help.

Epilepsy is not a sentence. Thanks to the rapid development of medicine, suffering from epilepsy patients there is a chance to lead a normal, full life.

Epilepsy is an exceptionally neurological disease. Outside the attacks, a person with epilepsy is no different from others. However, it is worth recognizing an unpleasant fact - belong to such people in society with caution. The fact is that the term "epilepsy" has increased myths and stereotypes that may not correspond to reality.

To the problem of epilepsy, it is necessary to attract attention not only to patients, but also healthy people.

Since 2008, March 26, the so-called purple day is celebrated around the world - the day of the fight against epilepsy. This is a chance for everyone to learn about the disease, its causes and treatment.

How to cure epilepsy

What it is?

Many have heard of epilepsy and mistaken it to mental illness. But it is not. Epilepsy affects the nervous system and is characterized by the presence of foci. This neurological disease is accompanied by seizures. The patient cannot predict an attack. Epilepsy is really dangerous for its unpredictability. Diagnosis and treatment of the disease includes a number of studies and methods that contribute to the exact formulation of the diagnosis. Do not panic if you had a single attack. This does not yet talk about the presence of a diagnosis. When the seizures are repeated and proceeded in severe form, then there are grounds to begin treatment from epilepsy.

Often the disease is developing in childhood, but it is not included in the list of purely childhood diseases. There are cases when patients learned their diagnosis in adulthood. Epilepsy is inherited in 10% of cases. In adults, the disease develops against the background of other diseases. For example, with brain tumors. Alcohol intoxication is a common cause of the occurrence of this ailment. Alcohol epilepsy includes a group of pathological conditions characterized by the development of convulsive or dismissed attacks associated with alcohol use.

The most common forms of epilepsy are:

  1. Frebel convulsions are only partially associated with epilepsy, since the patients do not require daily anti-ebileptic drug therapy. Basically, convulsions arise in children aged 3 months to 6 years.
  2. Benign Rolandic epilepsy is characterized by rare lighter seizures that arise mainly during night sleep. But sometimes patients need to take anti-epileptic drugs.
  3. Youthful myoclonic epilepsy is good to treat. 75-85% of patients have persistent remission. The attacks are characterized by a light form and arise mainly after awakening.
  4. Infantile spasms - epileptic syndrome observed in children aged 3-7 months. It stops when the child marks 2-4 years, but there is a danger that infantile spasms flow into another form. 1/5 cases of infantile spasms passes subsequently in Lennox-Gasto syndrome. A child cramps can last just a few seconds, but repeatedly repeated throughout the day. In the suffering of this form of epilepsy children, psychomotoric disorders are observed or the delay in intellectual development.
  5. Lennox-Gasto is quite rare syndrome. It is characterized by a combination of seizures of several types and their resistance to medication therapy. Treatment This form is difficult, but sometimes it is possible to achieve partial seizures.
  6. The form of reflex epilepsy is usually developing in adolescence. The girls the disease is diagnosed more often than the young men. The reasons for the appearance of attacks are external irritating factors. Approximately 50% of patients seizures occur only in response to rhythmic light stimulation, and in other cases they are provoked by flashing light. Sometimes attacks appear and spontaneously.
  7. Temple epilepsy is one of the most common types of epilepsy, which is characterized by the location of the epileptic focus in the temporal area of ​​the brain. This form is worse than just a treatments, in 30% the drugs do not have any effect at all. The beginning of the attack at temporal epilepsy is usually expressed by involuntary movements. In rare cases, the patient during the attack freezes in an unnatural pose.
  8. Lobal epilepsy (front epilepsy) refers to severe forms of the disease. The attacks begin suddenly and end quickly. Due to the peculiarities of the disease, it is difficult to diagnose it.

Each of the forms of epilepsy has its differences in manifestations. But is it possible to cure epilepsy if you turn to a specialist in time? This is possible if you come to the doctor on time, do not ignore the symptoms, as well as adhere to all recommendations. If you once diagnosed epilepsy, be prepared for what you have to be constantly checked. Treatment is prescribed based on the individual characteristics of the patient: age and overall health. For example, epilepsy can be successfully cured in infants and young children. For this, special therapy is applied, which is aimed at eliminating the occurrence of attacks and restore impaired brain functions.

Treatment of epilepsy in older children mainly includes taking drugs to control attacks and reducing the risk of relapses.

Opinion expert

Author: Vladimir Vladimirovich Zakharov

Neurologist, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Center for Diagnostic and Memory Disorders

Epilepsy for many years remains a heavy and dangerous neurological disease. The complexity of the diagnosis lies in the diversity of clinical forms of epileptic seizures. In the Yusupov Hospital, patient examination is carried out by qualified neurologists and epileptologists that have many years of experience. Diagnosis is carried out with the help of modern medical equipment. Doctors use EEG, CT and MRI. Blood test is estimated in a modern laboratory.

In compliance with medical recommendations for the treatment and prevention of epilepsy, more than 60-70% of patients achieve a long-term remission. Conducted therapy must meet quality and safety standards. In the Yusupov Hospital, each patient is selected individual treatment plan. Appointed medicines are included in the list of recent European recommendations on epilepsy therapy. In order to reduce the risk of developing a relapse of a convulsive secess, neurologists and epileptologists of our hospital provide patients with personal preventive recommendations. A similar approach to treatment distinguishes the Yusupov Hospital from other medical institutions of the capital.

Causes

The first attacks of epilepsy arise up to 18 years. Very rarely disease appears in adults. The seizures are distinguished by instability and have a variety of severity. At one point, the patient may not notice the beginning of the convulsion, and in the other - to experience a more severe form of an attack.

The causes of epilepsy depend on age. In children and adults they differ. The course of the disease in patients of different ages also has its own characteristics. Sometimes epilepsy is found as a secondary illness with:

  • Development of development in children
  • diseases of the central nervous system,
  • Use alcohol and drugs.

It is the causes of the emergence of an epileptic segment are directions in choosing therapy. If the disease provokes a malignant tumor in the brain, then it is deleted. If the increased excitability of the hearth in the brain is associated with hemorrhage, then the blood cluster is removed and the state of the vessels is normalized.

Different causes and factors for the development of epilepsy and the emergence of the hearth in children and adults are classified according to the following groups:

  1. Idiopathic group. It includes heredity.
  2. Symptomatic group. This includes diseases, intoxication and injury, cysts and other reasons that contributed to the emergence of epilepsy.
  3. Cryptogenic group. The reasons for the development of the disease in patients just can not be installed.

Epilepsy in children is 3 times more often than in adults. It is especially difficult to raise the correct diagnosis of newborn, because convulsions are difficult to distinguish from the usual motor activity of the baby. In addition, signs of epilepsy are very diverse. Some patients have no such seizures.

Is it possible to cure forever?

According to the statistics of the World Health Organization, approximately 50 million people suffering from different forms of epilepsy live today. Approximately 40% of these cases is not amenable to treatment, and approximately half of epileptics can not take medicines, while not experiencing side effects. Approach treatment so that the disease has a minimal impact on the quality of the patient's life. Becoming the hostage of this disease and for the first time coming to the reception to a specialist, patients ask a question - is it possible to cure from epilepsy forever? Unfortunately not. But you can learn to live with her and maintain your health. Moreover, every year new methods and drugs appear in medicine. Depending on the shape and course of the disease, doctors prescribe the most effective course of treatment.

Indications for conservative therapy

Epilepsy has an impact on all sides of the patient's life, and understanding these problems is important from a medical and social point of view. The most important goal of treatment of epilepsy is the cessation of seizures with minimal side effects of anti-epileptic therapy. In recent years, positive shifts have emerged in solving the problem of epilepsy. More advanced visualization methods have appeared, which allowed to diagnose the organic nature of the disease. The main task of conservative treatment of patients is preventing the recurrences of attacks. Therefore, the pronounced symptoms of epilepsy may become an indication for conservative therapy. Before starting treatment, you must confirm the diagnosis. And for this, the patient needs to be a comprehensive examination. Diagnostics includes the following studies:

  • blood test,
  • Radiography skulls,
  • Study of the eye dna
  • Ultrasonic Doppler Cerebral Artery.

Neurovalization is required using computer x-ray or magnetic resonance imaging brain. Treatment may not give a result if the patient has ignored the symptoms of epilepsy for a long time or did not adhere to the recommendations of the doctor. If all conservative methods are ineffective, and the form of the disease meets certain indications, surgical treatment is applied.

Surgery

Before moving to the radical methods of treatment of epilepsy, the patient must take a course of receiving medicines and, possibly, chemotherapy. Only after the results obtained are not indicated on the positive trend, you can contact surgery. The main indication for surgical treatment is the stability of seizures to drugs and drug therapy. Neurosurgery is the optimal option for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. The surgical operation is to eliminate the focus of epilepsy. It is an efficient and safe method of treatment. After the operation, the absence of attacks is observed, which is a factor in improving the quality of life and psychosocial adaptation of patients. Surgical operations are carried out in exceptional, especially difficult cases in order to remove the formation, causing mechanical irritation of the brain, as well as to perform cortexectomy and partial kallosotomy.

Is an adult epilepsy?

Recently, the attitude towards epilepsy has changed. This disease learned to treat. The process is quite complex and costly, but modern medicine has achieved incredible success. Many patients get timely, qualified help of specialists. As a result of the correct treatment and reception of drugs, sicks can fully control the seizures, and in five years you can refuse drug intake. The main thing is to know where you can cure epilepsy, do not tighten with a goal to the doctor and follow all the recommendations. But the patients who managed to cope with the disease should adhere to a certain lifestyle. This is especially true for adults, the reason for the appearance of epilepsy in which there were harmful habits and negligence towards their health. It is important to comply with the basic rules of the regime: to sleep for 7-8 hours and completely refuses to alcohol.

Epilepsy for a long time is surrounded by mystery, fears and prejudice. Meanwhile, recently, the attitude towards it in civilized countries has changed. And not least because this disease learned to treat. True, it requires considerable costs. Attempts to reduce the cost of treating the transition to generic leads to the loss of remission and the emergence of resistant forms of the disease.

Excited brain

In antiquity, epilepsy was called a "sacred illness" sent by the gods. On the one hand, its manifestations were scared, but on the other - people suffering from this disease often had outstanding abilities. In a modern sense, epilepsy is an inhomogeneous group of diseases whose clinic is characterized by repeating convulsive attacks (seizures). They arise as a result of the synchronous excitation of all neurons of a separate section of the cerebral cortex - epileptogenic focus. Sometimes an epileptic attack is preceded by an Aura, manifested in the form of an inexplicable illusion, sound or visual disorders - depending on the localization of the epileptic focus. The attacks are manifested in the form of short-term involuntary cramps in any part of the body (partial cramps) or throughout the body (generalized convulsions). Generalized convulsions are often accompanied by loss of consciousness.

The seizures may occur both less than once a year, and up to several times a day in the event of a severe course of the disease. Often it is impossible to find out the causes of the occurrence, and then they speak idiopathic epilepsy. An international group of scientists led by specialists from the University of Melbourne found that in 12%, the Ideopathic epilepsy was caused by the Mutation of the DEPDC5 gene (protein encoded by this genome, participates in the transmission of signals within neurons).

Secondary, or symptomatic, epilepsy may have the following reasons: brain damage in the prenatal or perinatal period (hypoxia or generic injury), head injuries and stroke, caused brain hypoxia, brain infection, for example, meningitis and encephalitis, parasitic diseases, brain tumor. There is also the so-called cryptogenic epilepsy. This diagnosis is set when the reason for the appearance of a generalized symptomatic epilepsy cannot be accurately determined by research results.

The factors affecting the activity of the brain can provoke epipridges: hormonal changes (in particular, menstruation), flickering light or flax images (when driving on the train, by car), intoxication (alcohol, some medicines, toxic substances). There are also equivalents of epileptic seizures in the form of suddenly occurring mood disorders, disorders of consciousness, as well as in the event of a severe course of the disease - characteristic identity changes and intelligence.

Two diseases are directly related to epilepsy - migraine and depression. Epidemiological studies have shown that every fourth patient epilepsy suffers from migraine, and the frequency of occurrence of epileptic seizures in people with migraine reaches 17% and higher. At the same time, depression is detected in 20-55% of patients with constant seizures and 5-10% of persons with controlled seizures. Most often, this connection is observed in patients with a partial form resistant to treatment.

Often, depression in epilepsy is not diagnosed, but it is precisely it, according to a study conducted at the Department of Nervery Diseases of the Faculty of Postgraduate Education PMMU. I. M. Sechenov, is an essential factor affecting the quality of life of the patient (its influence is higher than the actual epilepsy).

Healing is proved

According to the European Commission on Epilepsy, about 50 million people suffer from this disease, or up to 1% of the world's population. In Russia, according to the Ministry of Health, epilepsy occurs with a frequency of 1.1 to 8.9 cases per 1000 person, but, according to specialists, this disease is not diagnosed enough. According to the chairman of the Russian anti-Epileptic League, Professor Gagik Avakyan, in the overwhelming number of medical institutions, epilepsy is detected using the method of routine electroencephalography, the effectiveness of which is at best 30%. But for the formulation of an accurate differentiated diagnosis, at least 12-24-hour video EEGs, an exciting night sleep time (the effectiveness of the method is 88-95%). This procedure is as a rule, as a rule, in paid medical institutions.

Few people know that 70% of children and adults, who first diagnosed epilepsy, can be successfully treated (that is, to fully control the seizures) with the help of anti-epileptic drugs. Two years later - five years of successful treatment of approximately 70% of children and 60% of adults can stop taking drugs without risk of relapse. After that, if the patient complies with the main rules of the regime: sleeps 7-8 hours, completely refuses to alcohol, - attacks, as a rule, are not returned.

Ulyana and Yaromin Burlutsky.

However, in developing countries, three-quarters of people suffering from epilepsy do not receive treatment in which they need.

In Russia, the situation, of course, is better, but differs from those in developed countries. "Over the past 20 years, a lot of work has been done in children's epileptology, at the same time there is no reliable connection between the children's and adult services, - confident President of the Unification of Epileptologists and Patients Professor Andrei Petrukhin . - An adult neurological network is not ready to take a patient and continue its treatment with an effective drug, which leads to the loss of remission. "

Indeed, either neurologists or psychiatrists who are not able to understand the subtleties of diagnosis and the treatment of this complex disease are observed with epilepsy patients. Epileptologists in Russia are prepared as part of postgraduate education programs, in particular in the Russian National Research Medical University named after N. I. Pirogov, but while experts are far from all regions.

Problems should be attributed to the inaccessibility of drugs, and the case is not only at the highest value of the latter. "Unfortunately, new drugs are often unavailable for Russian patients due to the fact that they have not been registered in the Russian Federation, - says epileptologist, to. M.N. Yuri Shiryaev (Headache University Clinic) . - We have no right and opportunities to apply effective medicines recognized by the global medical community. "

Absolute evil

However, in recent years, experts have an unexpected problem related to the state attempt at any cost to save on treatment. Dear, but effective original drugs are replaced by cheap generics that benefit tenders for preferential provision of drugs. "In epileptology there is a golden rule recognized by the International Standard of Treatment," says Yuri Shiryaev. - It is impossible to replace the drug on which remission is achieved. " Russian studies fully confirm this rule.

For example, according to the Professor of the Moscow Regional Research Clinical Institute. Vladimir Irina Rudakova, after switching from a branded form to generic analogs of Topiramata during the year, the loss of remissions occurred in 75.6% of patients, epileptic status - in 3.75%, emergency care or hospitalization took 51.9%. Inverse switching to the original drug was produced in 86.2% of patients, after which the initial doses of Topamax increased in 58.0%, the transition from monotherapy to polyterapics was produced in 60.0%, and the initial level of control over the attacks was achieved only by 32.9% patients.

At the same time, the state does not win anything: the disruption of remissions in epilepsy costs much more expensive, especially if you consider not only direct, but also indirect costs associated with disability. In accordance with the recommendations of the Expert Council of the Russian Anti-Epileptic League, to begin therapy preferably from the original drugs or from generics made according to GMP standards. In each case, continuous support of the patient with a prescribed antiepileptic drug should be guaranteed. A patient in remission should avoid any replacement of the drug (original on Generic, Generic to Generic and Generic to the original).

Disease discrimination

Laws prohibiting social discredit of persons with epilepsy, adopted in the United States in the United States in the United Kingdom and Australia in 1992. Until now, in China and India, epilepsy is considered an obstacle to marriage. In Russia, in the presence of the diagnosis of epilepsy, in any period of life, there is a contraindication for work by a doctor or nurse, directly engaged in treating patients, teacher, artist. In Russia, in Poland and Japan, the persons ever had a diagnosis of epilepsy are forever deprived of driving rights. In more liberal countries, the possibility of driving is determined by the lack of seizures and mental deviations.

The duration of the period from the last attack, allowing the patient to raise the issue of obtaining the right to driving, is, on the recommendations of the International Bureau of Epilepsy, 2 years.

Not only tablets

In the fight against epilepsy, especially with resistant forms, doctors use not only chemotherapy. According to Yuri Shiryaeva, in children's practice and in adults with partial seizures with sufficient efficiency, electrostimulation of the wandering nerve is used.

The pulses are created by the generator installed under the skin (under the left clavicle or next to the axillary depression). This operation refers to high-tech medical care. According to the doctor, children have an efficient ketogenic diet, and as an additional method is used therapeutic plasmferresis. It is believed that he can increase the response of the body to take drugs.

In the US, data on the effectiveness of the electrical stimulation of a trigeminal nerve (in adults) appeared.

According to statistics, there are about 50 million people, patients with epilepsy in the world. This is a chronic disease of the brain of non-infectious nature. It is characterized by the occurrence of repeating attacks of various intensity, without a certain provocateur.

Epilepsy can be transmitted "by inheritance" or develop in the course of life. Studies indicate a close relationship of the disease with the level of people's living. What it is lower, the more often there is epilepsy and the harder of its symptoms. 70% of patients can live without seizures if the right treatment is in time.

Treatment of epilepsy. Brain epileptic

Causes of epilepsy

The disease is at the heart of the disease lies the hyper-pilot cells of the cerebral cortex. The pulses of excessive force arise in a certain area (epileptogenic focus), and then with a huge speed apply to other cells, causing violations in the body of various forces.

In 40% of cases, the reason is genetic. There is a whole set of genes, the change of which adversely affects the activity of neuroglia cells. However, the fact that the disease is not transmitted from generation to generation, indicates its polygenic origin (a certain combination of genes is needed). The disease due to heredity is more often manifested in early childhood.

Treatment of epilepsy. Epilepsy in children

Acquired epilepsy can provoke:

  • damage to the brain during the period of intrauterine development (for example, caused by hypoxia);

  • injuries in childbirth;

  • Card and brain injuries;

  • infectious diseases (viral, bacterial, parasitic);

  • stroke;

  • tumor education in the brain;

  • multiple sclerosis;

  • Regular impact of toxic substances on the body.

Symptoms of epilepsy

The manifestations of epilepsy are closely related to the localization of the epileptic focus and the range of proliferation of pulses. The brain in the patient does not work as well as a healthy person. Without visible reasons, a sharp increase in nerve impulses is possible and the change in their transfer, which is manifested by epileptic attacks (seizures). Their manifestations depend on the localization of the focus of increased activity. The attack of the disease is able to flow as:

  • visual hallucinations in the patient;

  • modified auditory and visual perception;

  • disorders of consciousness without visible physical changes;

  • headache.

With a slight course, the attack may be not at all for others. The patient may look like a deeply conceived man and not to attract any attention.

Treatment of epilepsy. Brain during an attack

An option for manifestation of epilepsy is tonic-clonic attacks (voltage, as well as twitching various muscles). They can be generalized (all the muscles of the body are touched upon) or partial (only one muscle or a certain group is used). During the attack, the patient does not understand anything, it does not feel, since his consciousness "turns off". With unfavorable development, they speak epileptic status. This condition in which the attacks attack the patient one by one.

Is it possible to stop the attacks forever

Contrary to popular belief, epilepsy is treatable. With a benign course with rare attacks, it is possible to eliminate the disease without drugs. Approximately 10% of the population 1-2 times in life are faced with states similar to epilepsy attack, but they are not diagnosed with them.

With timely diagnosis and treatment of 80% of patients, there may be a normal lifestyle, not facing seizures. Those patients who have no attacks of the disease have been detected over several years, can abolish drug therapy (in the absence of contraindications). Most people with this pathology take lonaude drugs that help to reduce the symptoms of the disease to a minimum.

Methods and methods of treatment of epilepsy

Medical therapy is usually used to combat pathology. Assigns from a group of anticonvulsants who prevent attacks. Treatment with drugs can be supplemented with a diet, rules for optimizing the time mode. With a small effectiveness of drug treatment, neurosurgery is used. Neurostimulation is also gaining popularity as a method for treating epilepsy.

Treatment of epilepsy. Neurostimulation

Folk remedies

Folk recipes can assist in the treatment of epilepsy, but they must be used correctly and desirable, after agreeing with the doctor. Some unconventional manual techniques are popular, according to which during the seizure you need to put pressure on certain parts of the patient's body. For example, it is recommended to press the left palm epileptic to the floor, simultaneously step by a little finger on the left foot. In practice, it turns out that such manipulations are quite difficult to fulfill, especially in the case of a convulsive attack.

Predated epilepsy was treated by priests, fumuring the room of a sick resin of Mirra. This method of practicing non-traditional medicine is recommended to this day (they advise to lay the slices of resin in the patient's room).

Fitotherapeutic methods of treatment of epilepsy are popular. In folk recipes, St. John's wort, oregano, a labaznik, Borshevik and other herbs are used. Most often recommended:

  • Mary root tincture. 3 tablespoons of plant petals insist in a bottle of vodka for a month. Take a teaspoon three times per day (you need to take into account that alcohol is contraindicated in epilepsy).

  • Herbal collection. Tie peony, rod and licorice in equal proportions. Herbs are triturated with a blender or coffee grinder, before receiving a homogeneous powder. Take a ½ teaspoon, three times per day, along with a diper tablet for 2 weeks. Conduct 3 courses with an interval per week. Before use, you should consult with your doctor.

  • Stone oil. 3 g means dissolved in 2 liters of drinking water. Drink 1 cup before eating 3 times a day. The course of treatment lasts a month, it is possible to conduct it no more than 1 time per year.

Treatment of epilepsy. Stone oil

The lack of objective confirmations of efficiency, safety, side effects, as well as the possibility of use in various types of illness, can be considered disadvantages of national treatment.

Do not put experiments on yourself! Consult a qualified help

Surgical intervention and physiotherapy

Most physiotherapeutic procedures for pathology are contraindicated because they can provoke an attack. Increasing the effectiveness of drug therapy can be achieved using transcranial magnetic stimulation, as well as neurosetimulation of the vagus nerve. Methods are used only by appointment of a doctor.

Surgical treatment is prescribed after a year and a half adequate, but inefficient drug therapy. The purpose of the operation is the complete cessation or reduction of the frequency of attacks and improving the quality of life of the patient.

The operation is preferable if epilepsy acts as a consequence of organic changes in the structure of the brain (for example, with tumor formations). It must be said that surgical interventions in case are resorted only in extreme cases. Medicase therapy is effective in almost 90% of patients.

Medications

Anticonvulsive drugs (anti-epileptic) allow you to take a disease under control. Preparations, as well as their doses, are selected individually, in accordance with age, the condition of the patient, the presence of chronic diseases and contraindications, as well as the severity of the symptoms of the main disease. The effectiveness of conservative treatment depends not only on the professionalism of the doctor, but also from the readiness of the patient to comply with all its recommendations. During the treatment of epilepsy, it is necessary:

  • accurate to comply with the recommended reception mode and dosage of drugs;

  • completely abandon the self-medication and the use of any medication to coordinate with the doctor;

  • Do not cancel drug therapy yourself (even if the patient seems that the attacks will not be).

It is important to inform the doctor about any reactions of the body, the appearance of symptoms that were not before. It is impossible to adjust the dose of funds to independently. Treatment begins with a minimum dose. If there is no needed effect, the doctor can increase it or recommend another tool. The minimum therapeutic dose is fixed for the subsequent regular use by the patient.

Treatment of epilepsy. Medicia treatment

Treatment of epilepsy in the clinic: stages and results

The clinic is dealing with the treatment of neurological and psychological problems at a high level. Huge practical experience of doctors, unique therapeutic techniques allow for adequate assistance to each patient.

In the treatment of epilepsy, it is very important to enlist the support of not only a competent physician, but also close relatives. The presence of an assistant significantly increases the chances to recover. If it is necessary, the decision is advised by a psychologist and psychotherapist in the clinic.

Drawing up an individual treatment plan begins with diagnostics. It is important to establish the form of the disease, its symptoms, the patient's condition as a whole. All this information is necessary for the selection of the maximum efficient drug.

Next, you need to reveal the root cause of the development of the disease. With symptomatic form, doctors are engaged in the search for a provocating factor, investigate the brain in detail and the safety of its functions. Also carry out a survey aimed at detecting provocateurs of epileptic seizures to reduce their impact to a minimum.

At the next stage, the doctor develops an action plan to exclude risk factors. This is a complete refusal of alcohol, as well as other toxic substances, restricting the use of certain medicines, reducing the risk of overheating / supercooling the organism, mental and physical overvoltage.

After discussing all the questions, the doctor appoints a medicine, advises relatives regarding their actions when attacking, talks about first aid rules. The adequacy of actions in such cases can save a sick life, since epilepsy increases 3 times the risk of premature sudden death (compared to those for ordinary people).

Treatment of epilepsy. Consultation in the clinic

The cost of treatment of epilepsy

The goal of the clinic is aimed at providing high-quality medical care to the maximum number of patients with epilepsy. The cost of therapy depends on the individual characteristics of the development of the disease, the list of diagnostic services and the nuances of the treatment plan with a doctor. More information about the rates of the clinic can be found directly during consultation, as well as by phone number specified on our website.

Calculator cost treatment Every case of dependence is individual. Someone needs special nutrition or medicines, another - additional hours of therapy with a psychologist. We will help you choose a treatment option that is suitable for you or your close.

The text is presented solely for informational purposes. We urge not to engage in self-medication. When the first symptoms appear - contact your doctor. Recommended reading: "

Why not do self-medication?

".

Treatment of epilepsy

Treatment of epilepsy is medicinal and other means designed to withdraw the symptoms of the disease and the impact on the cause in order to eliminate acute manifestations of this pathology. For various varieties

Epilepsy

Different drugs and combinations are used. In 70% of cases, epilepsy can be effectively treated with medicines that help control the course of the disease.

Related medical events in the form of a diet, a day of the day, folk remedies can qualitatively supplement the main therapy. Treatment begins with the establishment of a diagnosis based on diagnostic procedures with medical professionals. Self-medication in epilepsy can be dangerous not only for health, but also for the life of the patient and others, since seizures in production, for example, can lead to people's injuries.

Is it possible to complete

With the acquired form of pathology, epilepsy can sometimes be cured completely. However, this disease has a peculiar nature, in patients can significantly change behavior when attacks, which can partially impede therapy.

Three varieties of epilepsy are known - hereditary, acquired (arising from the cranial and cerebral injuries, inflammatory cerebral processes), unprecedented (when the causal relationship is not detected). Benign epilepsy is not found in adult patients, it is a childhood disease, passing with age even without medical intervention. However, some doctors consider epilepsy chronic neurological disease with regularly repetitive attacks and inevitable pathological consequences for brain structures.

In practice, there are often cases of lack of progressional (progressive) epilepsy flow, when, after a long lack of seizures, patients maintain optimal thinking abilities. All this testifies to the absence of an unequivocal answer to the question of the complete cure of the epilepsy. Definitely definitely do not cure heavy brain injuries, epileptic children's encephalopathy, meningoencephalitis.

To how much the therapy is effective, such factors as the nature of the seizures in a particular patient can affect, the age of the patient in which the seizures are manifested, the intellectual level of a person. At the same time, the unfavorable prognosis for treatment will be in such cases when:

  • Treatment begins untimely;
  • Therapy is ignored while finding a patient at home;
  • Social circumstances that do not contribute to treatment;
  • Individual patient features.

Medical therapy

With epilepsy in the human brain, a persistent focus of excitement arises. Closely located neurons in large groups begin to actively generate electrical potential, which then spreads to all other brain departments. To understand the function of anti-epileptic drugs, it is important to know the mechanism of transmission of signals from neuron to neuron. Electrical signals are followed by nervous fibers. The current in such fibers is formed with a variable opening and closing of ion channels on the cell surface. When the cation of calcium and sodium penetrates into nervous cells through special channels and countercurrent of potassium cations, there are charge differences in the neural membrane area, which is a nervous signal that will be subsequently transmitted by nerve fiber. Upon reaching the electrical charge of nerve fibers, neurotransmitters are highlighted with synaptic cracks, special substances that will transmit signals to the remaining neurons. Neurotransmitters excite cells (glutamate, for example) or reduce their activity (gamma-aminobacing acid).

BrainAnti-epileptic drugs can affect all the above steps, normalizing neural activity. All of them can be grouped relative to the mechanism of impact on:

  1. Sodium channel blockers, among which lacinin and carbamazepine are highlighted. Lusdomin blocks the allocation of glutamate and has already been covered with a circulating neuromater, call electrical signals in cells. Carbamazepine will block sodium channels on the surface of neurons, which will not give signals to go on.
  2. The means affecting the gamma-amine-oil acid, to which the phenobarbital and diazepam (tranquilizers), causing the high sensitivity of the receptors to gamma-aminobacing acid, and thereby have a calming effect.
  3. Calcium channel blockers, for example, ethosuximide, preventing the spread of nervous fibers of signals.
  4. Modulators of synaptic vesicles protein 2a - leftiracetam, enhancing the effect of neurotransmitters, which reduce the excitation of neurons. The remedy affects the brain comprehensively.
  5. Multiple effects to which are attributed to topiramate and valproic acid. Topiramat increases the braking properties of gamma-amine oil acid into the area of ​​nerve cells. To increase the amount in the central nervous system of gamma-aminobacing acid, a valproic acid is used, but it also may also have a comprehensive effect.

All drugs can be divided into basic or traditional and new, which specialists received relatively recently. Traditional preparations are deeper studied, and new ones have great effects of exposure, but so far in the future. To date, new developments are used in addition to the main therapy with traditional means.

Anti-epileptic drugs are one of the methods of epilepsy therapy. Medicines are produced in tablets, capsules, granules for oral administration. Their impact may be immediate or slow release. Immediate drugs very quickly provoke an increase in the blood in the blood of the concentration of active ingredients and the same quick decline, which leads to enhanced effects at the start of entering the human body and a sharp decrease in impact after reaching the peak of any drugs. Each subsequent decrease in the concentration of the means provokes a weaker impact on the nervous system.

PillsDelayed release preparations have several layers of active ingredients that are placed on the basis. In the dissolution of the tablet preparation, all new portions of the necessary substances are gradually released. This leads to maintenance of constant concentration of the drug in the blood for a long time, reducing the frequency of drug intake. Such treatment is much more convenient to apply patients at home, which increases the commitment to therapeutic purposes. Also, slow-release drugs help better monitor pathology, since during their admission there are no peaks of the drug concentration and its fall. With this impact, in addition to tablets, there are also granules soluble in a semi-liquid or liquid food that can be used for children or in patients with difficult swallowing.

Also, in addition to the granules and tablets, drugs for the treatment of epilepsy can be produced in the form of droplets, syrups and solutions for injection. Such forms can be used for pathology therapy in childhood, as well as to quickly stop bouts or their series.

To common anticonvulsant drugs for epilepsy therapy, besides already mentioned include:

  • Clonazepam;
  • Phenytoin;
  • Beklamide;
  • Benzobarbital;
  • Valproat.

These drugs help to stop bouts with various forms of epilepsy - temporal, focal, cryptogenic, idiopathic. Before using any drug, it is important to consider all possible complications from their use, since each means can provoke severe side effects.

The greatest efforts in modern medicine are attached for epilepsy therapy with relapses. Patients in this case are forced to take medication for many years, which is addictive to medicines. This state of affairs helps pathology to function, despite the treatment.

Proper treatment for epilepsy implies the correct dosage of drugs supporting pathology at the necessary framework. Therapy can last each patient for a different amount of time. Its duration directly affects the frequency and duration of remission periods. With an outpatient observation of the patient, the doctor will be much easier to assign the necessary dosage of funds.

When appropriate anti-epileptic therapy, one drug is always applied, since their combination is capable of leading to the accumulation of toxic substances. The above-mentioned drugs are medicines of the first queue when appointing. These are the most studied drugs and relative to therapeutic effect, and relatively produced side effects.

There are also drugs of the second destination queue:

  • Topamax;
  • Sabril;
  • Lamical;
  • Neurotin.

Such drugs are not very popular in view of their insufficient learning, or due to pronounced side effects. However, sometimes doctors choose them, based on individual clinical paintings of patients and attack forms.

Surgical intervention

SurgeryWith the ineffectiveness of medicinal therapy of epilepsy, doctors sometimes use neurosurgical intervention, that is, they carry out an operation on the patient's brain. The development of attacks in epilepsy is always provoked by the excessive activity of any part of the brain, called the epileptogenic focus. After the excitation of epileptogenic focus, activity can spread to other brain departments, and the patient begins the attack. The purpose of surgical intervention will always be limited to the spread of excitation from the founded focus or its elimination along with a part of the patient's brain.

The propagation of such an excitation can be limited if cuts on the brain surface or dissect the curetone body, which is an array of fibers that serve as a combining structure between brain hemispheres. Molding of the corn body will block the path of transition of excitation from one brain hemisphere to another, which will help avoid attacks in the future. Surface cuts according to the crust overlap the path to other parts of the brain, and its partial deletion helps to eliminate the source of the attack.

Before surgery, it is very important to accurately establish the localization of foci. Neurosurgery for epilepsy is used without binding to age patients, however, it is not effective for each form of illness or type of attack. Also, any operation may have complications of an irreversible nature with neurological disorders (for example, the patient may remain paralyzed).

With a focal type of epilepsy, provoked by brain neoplasms or aneurysm, surgical treatment of the patient is shown. Operations are most often carried out without the use of general anesthesia to be able to control the condition of the patient and prevent damage to the most important brain areas that are responsible for the functions of movement, thinking, speech. Therefore, during surgical intervention on the brain, local anesthesia is used in epilepsy.

Operations are highly efficient and at the temporal form of the disease. The temporal share of the brain is either subjected to resection, or selectively remove hippocampuses with almond-shaped body. The second in this case is much better for the patient, and more than 90% of such operations are completed by the fact that the attacks in a person never occurs again.

With the underdevelopment of the brain hemisphere or hemiplegia in children, such a hemisphere is completely removed by hemisferctomy. With primary idiopathic epilepsy, the Callosotomy is shown to interrupt the relationship between cerebral hemispes and, accordingly, to get rid of attacks.

Neurostimulation of the brain

NeurostimulatorWhen the epileptogenic focus is found in a certain zone of the brain, neurosurgery can be used without displacements. For pharmac-escape epilepsy, this method is not suitable due to the multiplicity of constantly wandering foci of defeat. In this case, doctors use the methods of neurostimulation of wandering nerves.

The wandering nerves help the brain to manage the work of the internal organs of the abdominal and chest cavity - the heart, lungs, stomach, parts of the intestine. The nerve is a pair, descends to the left and right on the neck down from the brain. Influencing the wandering nerve is necessary on a permanent basis with the help of special equipment, similar to a pacemaker. Electrodes for stimulation are attached to the nerve on the left and the pulse generator are subcutaneously. After implantation, the patient refers to the doctor to adjust the pulse frequency and track the state of the device.

The method of stimulating the wandering nerve is used in the treatment of pharmac-escape epilepsy for decades, but the clear mechanism of the influence of such treatment is not yet clear until the end. However, clinical data confirm the benefit of such a technique in children and adult patients whose epilepsy is resistant to medication treatment. Also, neurostimulation can also be used in a complex with drug therapy in case of insufficient effectiveness of the last or in efficiency or impossibility of surgical intervention.

Laser therapy for treatment

Sometimes magnetic laser therapy can be used to complete the seizures. Laser therapy greatly facilitates the course of the disease in patients when passing a complete therapeutic course. Laser therapy duration is usually about 1.5 years. It includes 3 major laser exposure schemes that are performed in a certain sequence and through the set time segments.

Laser therapy is carried out using devices that can produce magnetic light waves. Using a laser allows you to:

  • increase restoring (adaptogenic) activity of the patient's body, increasing the stability of impaired brain structures;
  • rebuild bioelectric cerebral activity;
  • intensify the process of synthesizing RNA and DNA;
  • normalize cerebral rhythm;
  • Improve metabolic processes in the cerebral zone of the brain.

Laser therapyLaser therapy, applied for years, has demonstrated significant advantages on its use, compared with standard drug therapy. Among them:

  • The compactness of the hardware block for the technique that is easy to move, which allows to perform procedures at home, with displacements of patients in machines and other things;
  • The use of laser therapy does not provide for the refusal of drug treatment, which can be gradually reduced to no after several laser courses;
  • Magnetic laser treatment allows you to minimize the dosage of medicines, and with light forms of pathology - and fully exclude them;
  • Therapy does not have allergic, side or toxic reactions of the organism;
  • Significantly reduces the duration of treatment and the volume of medications used.

On the eve of the appointment of laser therapy, patients with epilepsy must need tomography and electroencephalography. After the course of treatment, it is necessary to be reused to evaluate the effectiveness of laser therapy in a particular case.

The second method of laser treatment of epileptics is thermobulation. The procedure is performed during the control of magnetic resonance tomography, on the eve of the application of the method, a survey is carried out to identify the accurate deployment of foci.

The course of laser thermalablation is a sequential drill of the hole in the patient's skull, which focuses the laser beam, creating high temperatures that turn off convulsive foci from the functionality of the brain activity.

Laser thermalabulation contributes to the effective therapy of patients in which the foci is divided into difficult zones, as well as in the occurrence of mental changes during the disease. The recovery period after laser thermal blocking is short, briefly after the intervention, medications must be taken.

In modern medicine, new developments for laser and therapy of epileptics are constantly held, so there is a possibility that in the near future laser therapy will allow completely eliminate attacks in patients.

Spa treatment

Healing proceduresSanatorium-resort treatment for epilepsy does not bring any results, so this diagnosis cannot be a testimony for a trip to the sanatorium. However, with accompanying pathologies and non-severe forms of the underlying disease (if after the last attack, more than 3 months passed) to go to the sanatorium, if we exclude rehabilitation techniques in the treatment that can harm with epilepsy.

For epileptics, physiotherapeutic treatment (any electric trains), pharmacopuncture, iggoreflexotherapy, are contraindicated. Balneotherapy can be assigned to patients individually. To a greater extent, sanatorium-resort treatment for patients with epilepsy is a way to relax, to travel, which positively affects the course of the disease and does not lead to provoking attacks.

How to stop the attack at home

What to do with the attack in a dream

Epilepsy in sleepSometimes epileptic seizures are tied to sleep, occur either when falling asleep, or when waking up, or in the process of night sleep. This leads to special patient helplessness, because at such time it is usually one indoors, which often leads to injury, trauma from furniture corners or other dangerous household items. Therefore, in order to protect a person with possible night attacks, it is necessary to provide him with a sleeping place with a soft headboard to prevent bruises, always remove any sharp items located near the patient's bed, provide a patient lower in height bed to minimize problems with a possible fall from it, And near the bed to lay a soft thick carpet for depreciation of the blow, the bed is equipped with only 1 pillow and, if possible, do not leave the patient one at night.

Attack after alcohol

Some people are able to warn at home alcohol attacks of epilepsy. This manages to achieve, if it is subtly noticing the harbingers of the disease. At the beginning of a alcohol, the loss of consciousness and arising cramps should be given the first help of the patient. First, the patient is safe to put in a convenient posture where there are no solid or acute items that you can hit or hurt. The head is put on the pillow, and the body itself is placed on the side to avoid falling back masses into the respiratory tract or swallowing the language during the attack. If the asphyxia (the tongue of the language) has already happened, it is necessary to press on the lower jaw on both sides, open the mouth, get and fix the language.

With a duration of seizures, more pairs of minutes must urgently cause "ambulance". If convulsions continue for more than 30 minutes, this indicates the occurrence of epileptic status, which requires long-term complex therapy in stationary conditions.

You can treat alcohol epilepsy both in the hospital and at home, depending on the severity of the pathology. All therapy should be aimed at eliminating the causes, including drug, psychotherapeutic treatment and dietherapy. All this will prevent the emergence of new seizures.

Saving attacks in a child

For those who are present in the epileptic seizure, it is very important not to lose and know how to stop it. This is especially important if the attack happened in a child who is unable to understand the preponderances of the state. The most important thing for those who are near, be calm. It is required to put the baby on the side, put the soft pillow under the head. Move the child is constantly not worth it, you should immediately take care to around the place where it lies, there were no dangerous items. The baby's head should be on its side all the time, in order to avoid asphyxia by the language or vomit masses. At the beginning of vomiting it is stronger to turn the baby's head in the side. To squeeze your teeth to the baby and stick it, it is categorically impossible to stick it, as it is impossible and fed or feed the baby. With the duration of the children's attack, more than 5 minutes or the permanent repetitions of the attacks are important in a timely manner of the ambulance brigade. Medical intervention will be required to the child and in case of injury during the attack.

Do not perform anything else in the attack. He either will be held by himself, or they will be stopped by qualified doctors. It is only important to ensure the safety of finding a baby when attacking and timely calling physicians.

Methods for treating children

Epilepsy in the childDepending on what causes child epilepsy, doctors prescribe various treatment. It is important not only to promptly stop emerging attacks, but, if possible, eliminate the cause of the disease. A huge amount of modern anticonvulsant drugs can help with all the forms of epileptic seizures, it is only important to choose the right to choose therapy in each case.

Usually, anti-cultural medicines are prescribed to children when transferring more than 2 attacks. Approximately 30% of all cases of drug therapy of children lead to full cure. If the form of pathology is severe, medicines reduce the frequency and severity of seizures. Initially, the children's dosage of all drugs is very low. It is raised gradually to obtain a facilitating effect. Therapy is then continuing in the form that will completely eliminate symptoms. However, it is important to remember that the treatment of epilepsy takes a long time, sometimes a child must be treated for months, and sometimes - and years.

Consequences in the absence of treatment

When a diagnosis of epilepsy, the patient's therapy should be permanent. In the absence of treatment in this case, a variety of adverse effects can occur. For example, patients with attacks can get serious injuries, emerging seizures can create problems in society - at work, in a family. Also, without adequate treatment, the attacks will become more often and expressable, which invariably leads to the formation of epileptic status, very difficult to restore and threatening life.

If patients first feel small incomplete attacks, they can decide that it can simply endure. However, in the absence of treatment, they will soon move into convulsive seizures, which will be more complicated. Also inconsistent seizures may be evidence of heavy cerebral pathologies. Untrect epilepsy significantly depresses the patient's cognitive functions.

Exemption from repetitive seizures will lead to the restoration of normal life, it will reduce the risk of degradation of mental and intellectual abilities, so drug treatment with this disease is extremely important.

Where to apply for symptoms of epilepsy

Specialists in epilepsy

NeuropathologistIn domestic clinics, the treatment of patients with epilepsy is engaged in most cases, neurologists. Although in some major cities, as in the clinics of many other countries, today there are already narrow specialists of this direction - epileptologists, in-depth studying the peculiarities of the functioning of pathology in the human body. Epileptologists are perfectly disassembled in the varieties of epileptic seizures, as affected by the human brain, those or other anti-epileptic agents, which are the physiological and genetic features of the patient, under which it begins to suffer from a form of epilepsy. This approach helps to establish an accurate diagnosis and appoint effective medication treatment. That is why efficiency from the treatment of epilepsy in such cities, as well as foreign clinics at times above.

The famous European epileptologist is Professor Antonio Russi, who founded in 1987 in Barcelona, ​​the Institute of Epilepsy. The doctor adopts in this institute of various patients with this pathology, adults, children, patients with very severe diseases. On the basis of the Institute, complete diagnosis is carried out, experts may choose highly effective therapy. Professor Russi takes part in scientific research related to the accuracy of determining epileptic foci in the human brain and is the president of the International Epilepsy Congress.

Leading Children's Epileptologist Israel Professor Uri Kramer heads the branch of neurology in the clinic of Ichilov and takes patients there. The scientific developments of this specialist belongs to the epiler bracelet, warning in advance about a possible seizure. Here is also a well-known adult epileptologist Professor Svetlana Kippervasser.

Clinics of Russia and abroad

For patients with epilepsy in Russia, several large centers were specifically open. Clinics offer patients with highly qualified treatment, consultation of epileptic doctors specializing in this disease. Any therapeutic establishment of a given profile will hold a comprehensive differentiation of epilepsy from other neurological pathologies and will select the best treatment. Epileptologists are engaged even by the most severe cases of the disease, including those that are neither medication or anticipant therapy.

Clinics with an epileptic bias serve children and pregnant women suffering from this pathology. Children's epileptologists are a narrow profile specialists who own unique knowledge for the diagnosis and treatment of rare forms of the disease in the youngest children. Here will always be prescribed therapy, depending on the age of the patient and its unique features.

Clinics apply all diagnostic techniques available to date. Here you can go through the electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging and other necessary procedures to clarify the diagnosis and form of pathology.

Among the most famous Russian centers, in which patients with epilepsy will be able to receive reliable assistance, allocate the Institute of Children's Neurology and Epilepsy, where Professor K. Yu. Mukhin (Diagnosis, Treatment of Children's Nervous Pathologies, Prevention of Youth Epilepsy), Nehro-Med Medical Center ( Consultative and diagnostic assistance to patients with pathologies of the nervous system of all ages), the center of epileptology named after A. A. Kazaryan, the Scientific Center for Children's Health at the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and many others.

If a patient has more than three different treatment diagrams, the child is delayed in development without visible reasons or the patient suffers from constant attacks when applying all possible treatment techniques, it is worth choosing a foreign clinic for epilepsy therapy. The most efficiently treated with this pathology in Germany, Spain, Israel, Turkey and South Korea.

The medical complex Teknon in Barcelona is the leader in the effectiveness of therapy among patients of different ages. There is effective treatment of epilepsy in 95% of cases. The main method of the survey here is four-day EEG monitoring, which allows specialists to select the most suitable and effective treatments. In the course of this diagnosis, a specialist can evaluate the reaction of the human body to a particular drug and choose the appropriate. In addition to this, pharmachenetic testing is carried out here, in which not only the effectiveness is determined, but also to the patient portability of various pharmacological agents. Only after that the competent scheme of therapy is selected, at which side effects are minimized.

The medical center of Suraski in Israeli Ikhilov is the largest state clinic of this country. Epilepsy symptoms here is cured in 95% of all cases of disease. Specialists from Ichilov conduct a comprehensive diagnosis of patients, choose individual treatment, control its move and efficiency. Even after the patient leaves the clinic, he can always contact the attending physicians and adjust with their help their own therapy.

Sources

Article author:

Tedeeva Madina Yipanovna

Specialty: Therapist, x-ray physician .

Common experience: 20 years .

Place of work: LLC "SL Medical Group" Maykop .

Education: 1990-1996, North Ossetian State Medical Academy .

Article editor:

Mother Valentina Yakovlevna

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