Assyrians • Large Russian Encyclopedia - electronic version

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Assyrians

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    Volume 2. Moscow, 2005, p. 376-377

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The authors: S. S. Mikhailov, A. A. Shaykin

Assyrians (Syrians, Iceoras; self-esteem of Eastern A. - Actura, Suura, Western - Surian), Ethnic. Community in the Middle East. We are divided into the east. A. (Traditionally lived in Iran, North. Iraq, they also belonged to the people from North. Turkey, including A. B. USSR) and Zap. A. (Syria, South. Turkey). The number in Iran is 34 thousand people. (2000, Evaluation), Iraq 506 thousand people, Turkey 65 thousand people, Syria 84 thousand people. Live in Lebanon (34 thousand people), Palestine (4 thousand people), Israel (0.5 thousand people), Kuwait (4 thousand people), Georgia (6.2 thousand people. ), Armenia (3.4 thousand people), Azerbaijan (1.3 thousand people), Russia [13.7 thousand people, including 2.7 thousand people in Moscow. (According to estimated data - at least 10 thousand people.), St. Petersburg 0.5 thousand people, Krasnodar Territory 3.8 thousand people, Rostov region. 2 thousand people, the Stavropol Territory of 0.9 thousand people; 2002, census], USA (58 thousand people), Great Britain (8 thousand people), Sweden (10 thousand people), France (3.5 thousand people) and others. Total number, by different estimates from 450 thousand to 3 million people. Speak in the languages ​​Zap., Center. (Zap. A.) and Vost. (Vost. A.) groups Newaarama languages . Lit. Assyrian, or Novosyrian, language based on the Urmian language; Writing based on Syrian letters . The languages ​​of the countries of residence are also common.

Vost. A. - Adherents Assyrian Church of the East , Zap. A. - Syriak Orthodox Church (see Syrian church ). Both groups have parallel uniate branches: in the East. A. In the 1550s. - Supports of the Chaldean Catholic Church, or Haldei (Kyland), Zap. A. B 18 V. - Siro Catholics, 19th century. The Catholics of the Latin rite and Protestants also appeared among A. The Catholics of the Latin Rite and Protestants are visited by Orthodox churches.

A. Earls to Arameyam , consider themselves the descendants of the ancient Assyrians. In 1 c. (During the ruler fertilized Abghar V), Christianity is distributed among them. In the Middle Ages in the hands of A. Transit trade and the Christian mission behind the Euphrates, they created the Christian Syrian literature . Thanks to A. Preserved MN. Essays antich. Authors. At the 14th century For refusal to accept Islam b. h. A. was destroyed Timur The survivors took place in the mountains of Kurdistan and fled to Cyprus. From 15 c. Until 1974, the secular and spiritual head of Vost. A. was the Patriarch from the genus Mar Shimunov, whose title was transferred from uncle to nephew. To start. 20 V. Tribe A. North. Turkey was divided into independent, or arms, tribes (Dysna - in the Malikism of Diz, the Basic - in the Malikism of the Bases, the Upper and Nizhny Tyahya - in the Malikism of Thyari, Thaumna - in the Malikism of Thum, big and small jilting - in the Malikism Gile); Semi-independent (talnnaya - in Malikhsta Tal, Chalnaya - in the malyakness of Chal, Livina - in the Malikism Levin, Barvarina - in the Malikism of Barwar and others), who depended more from the arresting Malikov, rather than from the Turks; Dependent A.-REYY, who lived on the plain and those who were subordinate to the Ottoman authorities (Guavarna - in the Malikism of Giacs, Albacnaya - in the Malikism of Albak, etc.). The remains of tribal division are traced in the vehicle. A. So far. Iranian A., who lived in urmia (Urmazh) and Salmas (Slomasnaya), did not know the tribal division, the position was approaching the dependent A. Ottoman Empire. Due to the persecution of A. in the Ottoman Empire in 19 - 1st cent. 20 centuries. An extensive diaspora was formed. On the territory of Ros. Empire, let it. In Transcaucasia, A. Male from 1828 and especially in 1914-18, after an unsuccessful anti-Isman uprising in Turkey and the genocide that followed him. In 1924-37, the All-Russian Union of Assyrians acted.

Students. Culture is typical for nations Zap. Asia. In places traditions. Accommodation and in the Transcaucasia are engaged in agriculture and gardening (will be performed on the plain) and cattle breeding (will be present in the mountains). In Russia, there is Assyrian with. Urmia in the Krasnodar Territory (1 thousand people). Known rich folklore (fairy tales, sayings, prophecy). Most A. Diaspora live in cities. In Russia, occupied ch. arr. Small trade (immigrants from Iran), repair and cleaning of shoes (people from Turkey), in Georgia traditionally work in construction. Among the owl. A.- Representatives of the intelligentsia, medium businesses. There are international. societies. Organizations A., schools with teaching assist. Yaz., Newspapers and magazines are published ("Mesopotamia", "Star of Assyria", etc.).

Assyrians are one of the most ancient peoples of the world. Once they created a powerful and truly Great State of Assyria, and today their land are the territory of various countries. Most of the Assyrians of our time live in Iraq, although there are ethnic communities in the US, Sweden, Syria.

The Assyrian people are the true keeper of ancient bitching, although the initial beliefs remained forever in the past. Nevertheless, many pagan elements today are present in the culture of the Assyrians that the centuries-old traditions are holy. Such cultural aspects allow us to better understand the origin of the tribes and the secrets of their formation. Moreover, the Assyrians are not called one of the most mysterious peoples. What are they interesting? How did their ancestors live? And what are modern Assyrians?

Features of Assyrian people

Initially, various tribes lived on the Assyrian territories, many of which called themselves the Syrians, but they had distinctive features in comparison with most of the Syrian ethnos. The most important consolidating factor for them was the spread of Christian beliefs.

At the same time, I note that supporters of Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Islam appeared to the surroundings of the Assyrians. In matters of origin of the Assyrians, the overwhelming majority of researchers tends to the fact that the formation of the tribes began during the heyday of Assyria, ancient and powerful power.

Ассирийцы в древности
Assyrians in ancient times VIII century BC / © Angus McBraight

The state existed a lot of centuries and occupied extensive territories. The language of the Assyrians belongs to the Aramaic group, which also opens up the relationship of this people with other tribes. The cultural influence of the Aramaites was extremely significant.

It is known that Akkadian managed to oust the main adverbs, which were spoken by the ethnic groups of Meternrech, after which he took the dominant position in the region. What is noteworthy, scientists noted the pronounced traits of the Semitic type into most of the representatives of the Assyrian people.

In the 1903 publishing house, dedicated to the history of the history of Assyrian residents, the following is indicated:

"In physical. Tip Aisora ​​- Typical Semites. They find a great similarity of the Caucasian Jews of the Akhaltsy Group. "

In some way, this information is contradictory. As you can see, the riddles do not become less.

Ассирийские евреи Джонсон, Уильям DeGolyer Library
Assyrian Jews: William JohnsonMestoshod: Degolyer (Student Library) Dallas, USA

Assyrians under the authority of ingene

At various times, Catholics, creating a new branch of local beliefs, were influenced at the culture of Assyrians, the Kurds, with whom the people led wars, as well as Turkish conquerors. For a long time, Assyrian lands, who survived the collapse of the Great Power, were under the rule of strangers, which affected the lives and customs of people. Negative changes led to a sharp decrease in population number.

In the last century, the Assyrians numbered about a million people, and most of those who considered themselves as Assyrians were subordinate to the Ottoman Empire. Osmanov's power almost became destructive for the Assyrian people. At the time of the wars of the Assyrians mercilessly destroyed, the Turks were often "covered" by them, exposing as warriors defending the interests of the empire. What is noteworthy, the rights of the Assyrians did not interest the Turks.

Osmans destroyed not only simple representatives of the ethnos, but also immigrants from aristocratic childbirth, which helped eliminate potential competitors in power. The massive deportation of women and children became a disaster, barely not broken by the Assyrian people. Despite all the persecution and oppression, the Assyrians retain their cultural features, skillfully used borrowing from the customs of other tribes, and today they try to pass the path of national rebirth.

Ассирийцы - народ из глубины веков
The composition of the Army of Cerks. From left to right: Two chaldean infantrymen of Persia, Babylonian archer, Assyrian infantryman. Books "Writing Professor Oscar Yeger", 1910

Culture Assyrians

It should be noted that the contribution of Assyrians in the cultural heritage of mankind is truly huge. The formation of their civilization began in ancient times, when most of the modern peoples did not exist at all.

In Assyria, writing was actively developing, literary creations were created, the art of jurisprudence, medicine, architecture was improved. Magic rituals occupied the most important place in the ancient Assyrian culture. Doctors had to study in detail the features of rituals associated with beliefs and reverence of the deities.

Несторианская (ассирийская) христианская семья, делая масло, Мавана, Персия Библиотеке Конгресса США
Nestorian Assyrian Christian Family Makes Mawan Oil, Persia Easpage: US Congress Library

Assyrians keep an old tradition that today occupy a significant place in their lives. These are hospitable people with good hearts. They believe that the guest is the Messenger of Heaven, and therefore they try to surround him care and attention.

A man who came to the house of Assyrian will never feel lonely and abandoned. However, it is important to adhere to a special etiquette. The guest should not ask personal questions and prede the owners about their lives, should not be carried away by the use of alcoholic beverages and too linger.

Ассирийцы празднуют Ассирийский Новый год (Акиту)
Assyrians celebrate Assyrian New Year (Akita) / © levi clancy

The folklore of this people became a real treasure of Assyrian culture. From generation to generation, legends, proverbs and beliefs are transmitted. "There would be a head, and the hat from Baghdad will deliver" - says the Assyrian saying, which accurately reflects the mentality of these people. A special place in the People's Epos is occupied by the legends "Katyn Gabbara", which became the national domain of Assyria.

Assyrians are representatives of the ancient people with a richest culture. Of course, since the time of the emergence and decay of Assyria, up to this day, much in the text of the life of this nation has changed, but the essence of the Assyrians remained the same. These are proud, freedom-loving people, which is the main value to be the memory of ancestors and glorious affairs, which dream of repeating in the future.

Cover wallpaper: Ancient Assyrians / © David Grigoryan / EltonStudio.com

The people of Assyria have an interesting culture and a huge historical heritage, which remains for long centuries. Despite the fact that the state of Assyria Palo is still in the sixth century of our era, the nation continues to exist and develop. This, beyond any doubt, the phenomenon deserves that people speak and knew people. Assyrians - who are they? Answer this question is not so easy, but we will try to do it in our article.

History of the Assyrian state

The Assyrian Power has completed its existence in 612, and since then, the population, called the Assyrians, lives, without having his own state. If we talk about the historical homeland of the ethnos, it is located on the territory of Mesopotamia (now Iraq). One can only assume what efforts were applied by the people of Assyria, so as not to assimilate, do not disappear by the light, do not disappear from the map of nationalities. And they did it - the nationality of Assyrians now lives in the Caucasus, in Tatarstan, Iraq, Turkey, the United States of America and maintains close contact among themselves.

ассирийцы кто они

Assyrian - nationality. But at the same time, the representative of the people cannot have the citizenship of Assyria, because such a country simply does not exist today.

Culture of the nationality of Assyria

The culture that the Assyrian is still kept to this day, was born and functioned when the human civilization was in its origins. Assyrian power existed about two thousand years, cities were built, managerial infrastructure was created, taxation functioned. This is one of the richest cultures of the world, because it has long-time experience. Many achievements we use were invented or discovered for us, people of modernity, ancient Assyrians.

Writing

Special attention deserves the writing of the Assyrians. All knowledge of the life and culture of that time, humanity received due to clay signs. Initially, pictography was used (image of objects, their external form). Since the drawings as a method of communication occupied a lot of time, the letter was increasingly simplified until it turned into a cylinder. The ink of the ancient civilizations was the clay, and the weapon of the letter is an acute wand, shaken out of the tree.

ассирийцы религия

Tiles on which the ancient Assyrians wrote about themselves and the surrounding world, then dried and burned so that the inscription did not suffer from dampness or time.

It is known that schools existed in Assyria. During the excavations, signs were found, which were identified as "manuals for students learning". For training of the same writing was given four years. And later it was possible to find out that even the university was probably the first for humanity in Mesopotamia. It studied a letter, grammar and painting. Unfortunately, signs with homework homework or lectures are not preserved. Scientists assume that the tiles were treated with inept hand. And in the end, they spoiled, not a unique information about the teaching technique to our century.

What language do the Assyrians say?

Assyrian language is a mixture of East Aramaic dialects, which is etologyly owned by the family of seven-khamitic languages. In this language, not only the Assyrians who live in Iran, Turkey, Iraq or Syria, but also displaced in Russia, the United States. The literary Assyrian language was formed in the nineteenth century. It published and published press, fiction. A lot of foreign words have been rooted in the language.

ассирийская церковь

Mysterious Assyrians: Religion and Vera

Start a story about the Assyrian religion makes sense from the biblical legend. It is carefully stored and honuted Assyrians. Religion is in the honorable place, so the story is known to everyone. Its the essence is that one of the Magi, who came to the newborn Jesus with gifts, was by nationality by Assyrian. Making sure that the Messiah was really born on the light, this Magian returned to his people and defeated the good news about what a miracle was created, and the Savior was born in every home.

The Religion of Assyrians is a special kind of Christianity called Nestorianism. This is how the Assyrians believe. Who are they by religion? It is most correct to call them Christians, only special.

ассирийский язык

The emergence of non-traditional

There was a religious direction in approximately the fifth century. The founder is considered a monk named Nestruim, and later Patriarch Konstantinople. He occupied this position for four years: from 428 to 431 years. As for non-traditional non-religion, it feels a lot of features of aria's teachings. Recall, faith aria was rejected as a heresy on the first universal cathedral in 325, since he rejected the concept of Jesus Christ as the Divine Messenger. Of course, Nestorianism has many dogmatic differences, namely, the positioning of Jesus Christ is not like God (Orthodoxy) and not as a person (aria), but as a creature that had a human appearance with God inside. It is about the fact that in Jesus Christ were two starts: divine and human, and they can be easily separated from each other.

 ассирийская держава

Due to such glances to the nature of Jesus Christ, the image of the Mother of the Virgin Mother Virgin is also interpreted in Nestorians. It is called Christore and they do not honor the way Orthodox do. As for the sacraments, they in Nestorians converge with traditional: baptism, priesthood, communion, repentance. Plus, the sacredness of Sprivask and the glory sign are considered to be the sacraments in this faith.

The Assyrian Church uses the liturgies of the Apostles of the Faddey and the Mark, which were written during their stay in Jerusalem. Services are carried out at the Starrosist language. Icons and statues symbolizing the saints are not mandatory elements in churches. For priests, the celibacy is not provided, the Assyrian church is marked by marriage even after ordination.

Persecution

On the third universal cathedral, Nestorianism suffered the same sad fate as the faith of Aria - he was recognized as heresy. Since then, Nestorians have been living with communities whose chapters are recognized by Patriarchs Catholicos. In 1968, the teaching split into two schools, which separately exist to this day. The first school is the Assyrian Church, the center of which, if not surprising, is located in the USA, Illinois. And the second, the so-called the ancient Church of the East settled in Baghdad (Iraq).

древние ассирийцы

The twentieth century: Assyrians, who are they today?

The Assyrians began to move onto the territory of Russia after 1918, when it became clear: they would simply be destroyed in Turkey. The reception was organized quite warm, which was associated with the participation of nationality in the First World War on the side of the Russian army. In general, the twentieth century became the world's largest for the Assyrians who were twice reaching in brutal war with the Turks. At that time, many Assyrians pinned hopes on Russia as the Savior Christians of the East from the oppression, and even complete extermination. They were promised autonomy and broad rights, but when the war ended, the need to fulfill promises also moved to the background.

Approximately half of the Assyrians living in the Russian Empire died in the First World War. Quarter suffered from repression a few decades later. Then the Second World War, who came in 1941 to the territory of Russia, again claimed the lives of many Assyrians, who shoulder to the shoulder with other nationalities fought against fascism. And finally, the eviction of Assyrians in Siberia in 1949 led to the fact that about a third of all immigrants were killed as the next winter due to lack of warm clothing.

ассириец национальность

© Copyright:

Andrei Zelev

, 2007.

Certificate of Publication №207102700071

Reviews

"Already the name" Abraham "(" Avi-Rama ", i.e." My father / ancestor / high ") was also encountered in Assyrians (ABI-R; MU)."

I do not think this is the right interpretation of the name.

First: the root basis of this name speaks of a sound-resistant basis "BP-PR-BR." This sound complex arose from the frying of the twisting river of animals and people.

Secondly: Abraham is called the "Father of Multi", because in his name there is a semantic value of the root of "BP". In particular: the naughsk "1ovr" -potok, sperm; Arabic "1Orrat" -Serma; Nakhskoy "APRI" -Kanal, River, Dashp.Sm. "Ivry" - intern. From here, Ev-Frat.

Was Abraham the Jew for Nationality?

Everything that the author writes under the name "Andrei Zelev" (about the Jewry of everyone and the whole) is a lie. I'm not talking about this, but etymology.

I think the etymology for the author "Andrei Zelev", is a stumbling block, which is divided into the rattles of all his judgments about nationality and the religion of Juhud (Jihad).

Zerg Aldar 04/03/2014 17:43 •  Declare violation

Abraham, out of Hurray Hulled, from the south of Iraq, "Abraham, whose initial name was Abram (אַבְרָָ), was born in the Sumerian city of the UR in the 21st century BC. Er (in the Bible" Ur Kacedim "-" ur-chaldean " ) "

His name Semitic and has met other semitic peoples

Abraham was the progenitor of the Jews (from Ijakov-Israel) and Arabs (from Ismail).

There is no lies in my words. Jews - the Semitic people, who appeared in Iraq, not I say, but Torah.

Andrei Zelev 04.04.2014 21:02   Declare violation

Jews are not semitsky people, if you look at the origin of Abraham from Hurray Huldesky. Carefully read Torah. Haldey is honored by the god "Haldi", and he, Urthi (Hurritsky) God. The word "haldi" consists of two naughters: "Hyl" - Top and "Yes". The general sense load is the Most High Lord.

Vainahi, still, appeal to each other, ask about things, condition: - "Hu do Hyal de" (as a state, state of affairs)?

Did God named "Haldi" in the south of Iraq?

Or do you say that it is not scientifically?

You are trying to prove that Chechens occurred from the Jews, referring to words from Hebrew. And you did not think from where and how did these words happen? Have you not asked about their etymology? If you ask them and come to him from a scientific point of view, and not nationalist, you will see the reverse picture, the picture that the roots of Hebrew and the Arabic tongue are ecto themselves based on nuclear languages. This proves that Abraham was a naked-language prophet.

All the words that are found in the Bible around Abraham, these are themselves based on Nakhsk. Is this not scientific evidence? Or just a coincidence?

Many researchers of Hebrew and Arabic, in their studies are repelled against the roots, but when the question arises about their origin, or bred shoulders, or invent the bikes about the planet "Nabire".

Andrei, you have one hundred and sixty thousand readers. Praise! Many of them believe that Chechens occurred from the Jews.

You know, the cuckoo throws his eggs in the nest of someone else's kind of birds. And those, poor people, do not feed the murderer of the native flood. So it happened with Chechens, in its naivety, taking into the Society. As a result, we received the people who do not care about history, that is, the history of Chechens.

You can write further in your selected style and increase your electorate. The remains of Chechens are not able to preserve the nation in the context of their history.

If so please create, it means to be.

Zerg Aldar 04.04.2014 09:50   Declare violation

Here is what historians write:

"

The name of the ethnos: "Hutty / Hitty", acc. or "חטא" ("Hutta"), the IVR. - Translated as a "sinner" (possibly due to the most common skittors (ritual-tight-taking a horse?), Which in the pentateuch is condemned, as a great crime). It is curious that the word "Hatt" means "(wet) dirt" means "(wet) dirt".

It is possible that all the Old Testament "Gargarites", "Gararityans", "Garody", "Agarian" and "Agaryan" are such a hanasy tribes as "Gergezie (Gargasites)", which were a Prachite ethnos, which was part of Hatto Hurrit Language group (after the expulsion of Hikosov from Egypt, a new wave of Hurrites settled in Canaan). It is characteristic that in antiquity (Wai), Nahi were known ("Geography" of Strabo, I thousand BC) as "Gargaray" (Har-Kharey), which, apparently, identically, the Biblical - "Khalei" (Hurri -Huri), i.e. Nakhi-Garea were Prahurrites (besides Nahkh Terek's valley, the term "Gargaray" was called in the I thousand BC. And the Karabakh Karabakh. It is assumed that this name happened from the Nakh-Khurritsky word "Gargara" - "relative".

It is characteristic that not only toponyms, but many ethnonyms with the basis of "nah" sincecore are found not only in the territory of the Transcaucasia (for example, Nakhichevan), but also in the anterior Asia and Israel (the city of Nahore (Khuura), as well as biblical names as Nahum, Nakhchon, Nehhor).

So, in the Language of Nakhchi (the language of the Chechens (Vainakhov)) "ARTS, ARTSAN" - "wooded mountain" (wooded mountains - the initial habitat (pranodine) of Anatolys and Sumerov). As you know, in the first half of the XIV century. BC. Most of the territory of the South-West Asian Asia (Khattskaya Anatolia) was merged into the state of Artsava (before the country's conquest of hitts). On the Hanaanese language and Hebrew the word "Eretz (ארצ)" means "country; Earth "(" Artsano "-" Our Country ", IVR.). If the NaSh (probably, Prahurritskoe) expression "Arzan" to submit consisting of the words "ART" - "(wooded) country", and Sumerian (Ugeid-halafsky) "An" - "Sky", then the translation of the "ARTS AN" can be So: "Heavenly (close to the sky) a wooded country", i.e. "Forestry Mountain" (Suchmers, for example, "Country" and "Mountain" are denoted by the same word). Comparison of the above words indicates the proximity of Hatti dialects (Prahurrites) of Canaan (Protohanaaneyev) and Hutty (Prahurrites) Anatolia, as well as on their (words) belonging to the Hatto-Hurt language group.

When comparing with Hebrew of the Hurrito-Urantk (Nakh-Dagestan) words, it is necessary to take into account a fairly high probability that a lot of Hurrites (Nakh) words and expressions were assimilated by the ancestors of the ancient Jews ("Chernogolov") in the life of their stay in Mesopotamia and could Save in Hebrew.

For example, the Khurritsky word "ACTSES" - "Priest", which has been preserved in Vainakh language in the form of "C1" and in the meaning - "Pelting Divine" (H. Bakaev "Khurrita"), entered in the form of "ACU" and in the meaning " Priest "in Sumerian. In Hebrew, the term "Atsen" ("אֲצוּלָה") translates as "aristocracy".

It is curious that the word "Tsabar, Tzabar" (Tzabar), denoting in Hebrew of the indigenous inheritance of Israel, a native of the country (Jew) dates back to his lingui-stick roots to the Sumerian name of Hurrita - "Subire".

The Khurrit word "Chari" - "Kolchuga", Akkady "Shiryama" in the same meaning, Vainakhovskoe "Ch1OR (Chktor)" - "Shell, Bark" (H. Bakaev "Khurrita") with Hebrew "Shiriyon (ןוירש)" - "shell, armor".

On the other hand, the opposite happened. So, the well-known term "take" ("Union"), apparently - semi-by-birth, because it is known that "Britum" is an Akkadian word (in Hebrew - "Brit"). It is also known that the ancient Khaniana city of Beroy (Berit, Beirut) "based" by ELOM (i.e., captured by amorous, rebuilt and called). And then it is quite possible that such nakhi (Vainakh) words like Bart ("Agreement, Consent") and "Burtadan" ("agree"), phonetically (and in meaning) close (single) to the terminas "take" and "Brit (mind)", borrowed by Khurriti at Semitites.

It is characteristic that in the gixos period some garrite words could also enter Hebrew. Since "the facts of Nakhchin-Semitic lexical parallels are obvious and extensive" (D. Suleymanner), when comparing words, it is necessary to take into account that a number of words in Hebrew entered the languages ​​of Chechens and Ingush through Jews-Khazar (relatively recently). At the same time, Aramaic words are also in the dictionary of the Language of Nakhchi (they could also be borrowed from Hebrew): for example, on Vainakhsky (Chechen) "Ber" - "Child, Child", and on the Aramaic "Bar" - "Son".

We present some samples of "Nakhchinsko-Semitic lexical parallels." So, the proximity of the names among a number of terms, characterizes the vegetable world, was revealed. For example, (tree) "Spruce" in the Khurritsky language - "ACS", on ACCADE - "ASUCH" (Chechen "ASA" was preserved in the meaning of "stick, staff"), and in Hebrew "Spruce" - "Ashuhi (AISU) " Amour's Khurrites and Ambacha "Barbaris" mean - "Barbaris", but Vainakhskoe "Mujurg" means "Kalina" (H. Bakaev "Khurrita"), - just like in Hebrew "Murana" ("מוֹרָן") - "Kalina". Hurrites "Karahi" and the Akkada term "Karaphu" denote the "field under the ferry, etc.", and the words in Hebrew: "Karahat (תחַרַקָ)" means "PRAGALIN; Polyana, "and" Car (כַּר) "-" Luga, Pasture ".

According to Tanaha (Gen..23.2), Prawetz bought Abraham (approx. XX century. BC) Efron Hetteyanin (Hutty) is not only a land plot (field), but also a cave with the name "Makhpela". The word "mah-sang", according to Chechen scientists, consists of two nuclear terms (A.G. Maziev): "MAX" - "Price, fee" and "Bela" in the meaning (A. Vagapov) "Bought" (" Bol "-" Plata (for grinding) "). And then the name "Makhpela" can mean (perpetuate) the nature of the transaction: (cave) "For (good) price purchased" ("for the satisfied price ... for four hundred silver siquses" (Gen. 23.9.15)). If in the expression "Makhpel" of the word "MAX (a)" - Sumerskaya, meaning "Great, Big,", then the translation of Makhpel may be: "Big (" satisfied, sufficient ") fee" (meaning the same).

The titles under which the rulers of individual regions of Dagestan (B.G. Malachikhanov) were known - "TsUUU (Cumucheu}, Utsumi, Utsumi, Maisum. For example, the Laki ruler (Laki language is included in the Nakho-Dagestan group of languages) in some Folklore works (a fairy tale "about non-native Cumache"; the song about Manbar) was called "TsUUU, CUMUCH" (synonym for the word "highborn, noble"). In all these terms, how to see the overall root [CM (cm)], which may To testify to their general vocabulary. In particular, V.F. Malorsky noted that these titles are not found in Arabic sources and have nothing to do with Sassanid titles, which were still memorable in early Islamic times. The obvious similarity of the words listed above with Hebrew "Azum" ([CM]) - "Strong, powerful, huge" was noticed yet by B.G. Malachikhanov. Borrowing of this Jewish term Dagestanis from Khazar Kaganat is excluded because the whole famous science titulatura inside the "Khazarli" itself was TUR KSKA Even after the adoption by the Khazari of the Jewish religion (A.G. Bulatova. "Laktsi. Historical and ethnographic study XIX-beginning of the XX centuries. " 2000).

The similarity (coincidence) of the names of some letters of the Khanaanese (and the Jewish) alphabet with the words in Wainkovsky Language was already notified by scientists (N.A. Pavlenko "Letter History." 1987; Arba Vagapov "Chechen language and Phoenician alphabet". INET ).

So, the prototype of the image (drawing) the letters "Aleph" is considered (94.c.173) Egyptian hieroglyph in the form of a bull head (stylized anatoly, sacral vision of the head with horns, - Symbols of the Father's God, and later: Schmers - Nannar, Accidians - Sina, but not the emblem of Seth-Baal Haddad Gixos (he - dodged)).

As you know, Sanskrit "Go" (Indo-European "GU-OU"), "Ko" on one of the modern Dravidian languages ​​("Kannada"), Sumerian "GU (D)" (Wild Bull - "Rome") and the Basque "IDI »Have the meanings of the Bull. The semitic designations of the bull are the following: Assyrian - "Shura", Jewish - "Shore" and "Couples", Phoenician - "Shore", and Akkad ("Bull, Vol") - "Alfum, Alpum". Since the term "Hyl" means "Bull, Cow", then, apparently, the Alfum, Alpum Akkadian word is borrowed from the Hurrites (close to Hyl), and the letter "Aleph", is of the Khurrito-Akkad name ( It is assumed that the protosico letter was created by Gixos, see below).

Andrei Zelev 04/05/2014 10:01   Declare violation

The letter "NUN" in the Provoyanian writing reminds the snake (large worm), in the Rannefinsky alphabet - stylized (57.) Snake (see Appendix). Phonetically close to Khanaanese (and in Hebrew) The term "NUN" Nakh (Chechen) word "NIAN (a)" (NA) means "worm" (we note, in particular, that the Iranian "KARM" means "worm", and " Snake "(A.Vagapov)). It is possible that the initial sound of this word, as in the alphabet - "NUN" (for "NUN" - also the name of the Egyptian deity, personifying the primordial water chaos, and the God of the Nile - Snake).

The term "Shin, Sin (H)" in Hebrew (Hanaanese), Aramaic and Arabic means "tooth" (apparently, the same meaning of the word "tires" and amoreyev). The letter "Tire, Sin" in the early-refined alphabet is depicted in the form of two teeth - as if stylized teeth (usually in grapema (57.) Two connecting corners are symbolized or female breasts, or clouds). It is characteristic that in earlier, Protosina, writing, this letter is directly represented as a female breast drawing (schematically).

Since in Chechen (Nakhsk), the word "tire" means "udder", and in Kurdish ("Sine"), Iranian ("Sain") and in the ancienthanaanese (Protohanaanese) - "Chest" (in the Protosina Writing of the letter "Shin, Sin »Images are depicted as a female breast), it can be assumed that the word" tires, blue "is Hatto Hurritskoe, and to the expansion of amores used in Canaan in the meaning of the" chest, udder "(but not" tooth ", see below).

The word "Behar (Lehamium)" (בהר, להבה'ר), Ivre.- "explained, clarified (explain)," phonetically coincides with the Nakhsky (Chechen) word "Behar", which translates as "spoke", and say - too explain (report something), i.e. The meaningful connection is revealed.

In Hebrew (and Khanaanese), the word "VAV" means "hook, hook", while the term "s" on Chechen (Nakhsky) means "spit" (i.e., phonetic and meaning parallels are viewed (hook and spit - what is sitting on, put on)).

In Hebrew, the word "Cad" means "pitcher", and in Chechen ("CAD") - "Bowl, Glass". The word "cafe" in Hebrew - "Palm"; In Chechensky "Padon, hand" - "ka / ke" ("RU-KA" - "Kyug").

"Borrowing" from the Hatto Hurrist Praävka is found not only in Hebrew, but also at the Elamo-Dravidian ethnic groups.

Thus, the term (word) "Mar" ((מר in Hebrew means "Mr.", on the Nakhsky (Chechen) language ("Mar") - "Husband; Herbrezhe" (A.G. Maciev. "Chechen-Russian Dictionary." M. 1961), and Indo-European (possibly ancient Indian) "MAR" - "Young man" (A. Vagapov).

The concept of "Monkey" is marked in Hebrew (and Khanaanese) in the word "Kof, Kouf (Cop, Coup)", and in the ancient Indian - term "KAPI". Chechen (Nahska) The word "Keep" means "cast, image; Output ", and the expression" Kireash Layella "-" depict, grimace "(A.Vagapov).

The term "Ma" is an integral part of such words denoting "mother" as "Umma", noise. (The word "Umma", as one of the names of Wiva's wife, probably also elamo-Dravidian); "Imma", this; Amma, add. (Tamili); "MATA", SANSKR .. In addition, "the mind (m) A" means "light", and "MMA" - "beginning", i.e. These words are associated with the epiphanies of the Great Goddess.

The names of such great goddesses are known as "Ma-Zibia (Divia)" (translation - "Mother Goddess") and Kali-Ma ("Mother Cali"), and one of the names of Shakti (Durga) - Il-Amma (" God's mother "). The Khatt goddess Ma Belon was the goddess from Cappadocia. If we assume the term "Bellona" by the word from the Hatto-Hurritsky Lexicon, the word "Bela-della" from Chechen (Thai) is translated as "open, reveal." And then "Ma-Bellona" can mean - "Open mother (uterus)" (constantly ready for the creation of a new life). Sumerian goddess Ninhursang (synonyms: "Mother of all children", "giving birth (life)") also called the "domain of the uterus" ("BE-LIT RE-E-ME"), and its emblem, reminiscent of the form of the Greek letter "Omega "Usually interpreted on the basis of Egyptian parallels, and it is believed to the image (cow) of the uterus (Frankfort N. A Note On The Lady of Birth // Jnes, 3 (1944). In the language of the Tag, the concept of" mother "and anatomical term" uterus "also Denote by the same term "nan (H) A", to which, in particular, very close to the Sanskrit word "Anna" - "Mom" (not "mother").

It is noteworthy that the word "nan (H) A" is part ("banana" on the sound) of the name of Elam (Pradravidian) Great Mother's Great Mother's Mother "Pinan (a) chickens", which in this case translates as "mars (s) mouth (s) (God-Father) "(and then it is possible to mention the two-year deity of the halafts). If we consider the name "Pinanan (a) of chickens" as "PI-N- (H) AN (H) a-chickens", where - "PI" - "mouth, mouth", the ideogram "H" means "top, high "(See BN. I), and" (n) Anna "- either" Star ("Anna") ", noise., (51.) Either" Mom "on Sanskrit (on Sanskrit" Star "-" Anusha " ) or "Mother" on the freight and "chickens", noise. - "Mountain; Country ", then the interpretation of the name of the Divine may look either as" the mouth of the top (main) stars (s) of the Kura (in the sense of "Mountains, Earth"), (cf. Sumerian mythopoietic expression - "Sack and Earth"), or as "The mouth of the upper (high) mother (s) of the Kura (Father)".

From this name of Elam (Pradavidian) Great Goddess, it follows that a certain main star of the sky is already in deep antiquity associated with the goddess-mother (that is, the correlation of the Great Goddess with the Planet of Venus is confirmed. The goddess mother, the goddess of the sky is not only a source of light, but also - the mother of the heavenly gods (stars and constellations). Apparently, the name "Mother, Mom" ​​of the Great Goddess is chronologically the first (and most sustainable) name of the women's hypostasis of a dying deity.

Close phonetically and in the sense of the Nahska "nan (" ("(n) nan (for)" - "High Mother") and Sumerian "(H) Ning (B)" - "(High) Mrs., Lady", " It may indicate the existence of their vocabulary, ascending to a single Corelovka in the Hatto-Hurt-Hurrites. Since the word "Ning (B)" is part of both female (Ningmes, Ningursang, Ninglil) and male (Ninurta, Ningircles) The names of the Sumerian (and some borrowed) deities, then this (in line with the submissions about the diode divine) suggests Deep antiquity of Corelov [NN]).

It is curious that the word "chickens" in the modern language of the Thai means "horn" (animal), and this suggests that the mountain (any or possessing certain properties) was perceived as a horn of the Father's Horn (bull, see below), God of land and her subsoil.

The fact that the god of the Luna Nannar was originally (Sumer., Praderave.) He was epifanis of the goddess of the sky, confirmed, in particular, by the transfer of his obliges (Ura was found by the Ugeid vessels with the image of the crescent - the emblems of Nannar, the patron of the city) or the Halaf name "NAN ( H) A-P, "-" Mother's radiance (high star) ", where" RA, OR, UR, AR "- usually interpreted as" light, glow, radiance ".

Consider at the Chechen language (Thai), using Cyrillic when writing, the view of the words close to the meaning of words, which determine the meaning of the second part of the name ("Nan (H) A-R") of the Luna's god: "Light" - "Serro", "Glow" - "Kehegar" and "Lights" - "Lepar, Kygar" (Ir-Shappa - the Khurritsky God of Fire, Light and Flame). It is easy to see that the combination of the letters "AR, EP, IR" (the letter "L", as part of the word "el" (assumption), can be a manifestation of words or expressions in the designation of the theoforeness of words or expressions). And then it is quite likely that once the Anatolian name of God the moon sounded like "nan (n) a-ar (a).

http://berkovich-zametki.com/2011/zametki/nomer10/zilberman1.php. Andrei Zelev 04/05/2014 10:01   Declare violation

"On the other hand, the opposite happened. Thus, the well-known term" take "(" Union "), apparently - semi-by-birth, because it is known that" Britum "- Akkadian word (in Hebrew -" Brit ") . It is also known that the ancient Khananan city of Beri (Berit, Beirut) "founded" by ELOM (i.e., captured by the amores, rebuilt and called). And then it is quite possible that such nakhi (Vainakh) words like "Bart" ("Agreement, consent") and "Burtadan" ("agree"), phonetically (and in meaning) close (single) to the terms "take" and "Brit (Mind)", borrowed by Hurrites at Semitites. "

Well, let's look at the "reverse"

Nahska "Barth" (consent), Russian "Brother", German "BRUDER" (brother), have a common semantic connection. The basis of these words in a complete context (not truncated) can be traced in Latin. Barter. The law of a truncated word (the law of light pronunciation) from the lat. The foundations and dictated the nah "Bart" and the Rusk "Brother".

But etymology lat. BARTER, is traced with the nakhi "bar" (do) and "ter" (equally). This etymology could be considered controversial if it would not be the word "court" (head, vertex), which also has a truncated form from Latinsk. Karter \\ krater.

Where is semitism here? Or do you write me to anti-Semites?

On the rest there is no time to respond, you need to do business. I will not answer and later, because, on this landfast, I have already visited the years tent years ago.

Zerg Aldar 04/05/2014 10:50   Declare violation

Genetics, J1, J2 indicate the origin of the ancestors of Chechens from the territory of Arabia, Yemen.

Brother and consent are different words.

But the "Union" (Brit) and "Consent" (Barth) are not only consonant, but in meaning of similar.

Such titles like smallness clearly have semitic origins. This is a Jewish name

http://ru.wikisource.org/wiki/

% D0% 91% D0% AD% D0% 90% D0% 9D /% D0% 9C% D0% B0% D0% BB% D1% 85

Beno is also a Jewish name

http://ru.wikisource.org/wiki/

% D0% 91% D0% AD% D0% 90% D0% 9D /% D0% 91% D0% B5% D0% BD% D0% BE

Andrey Zelev 04/05/2014 11:11   Declare violation

Arabs Semitites. Arabs say they are descendants of Abraham. If Abraham is not semit, then how the Arabs became semites.

Andrei Zelev 04/05/2014 17:07   Declare violation

Nowhere, except in the torus there are no sons of Noah. Honestly, I doubt about the sons of Noah and their names. But so far I can not say anything, because the flood occurred, as they say more than 12 thousand years ago. Yes, and it is a secretly secret. They say he was a giant. And about Abel with Caine, too, I doubt. In general, I do not believe in fairy tales.

Zerg Aldar 04.04.2014 19:29   Declare violation

Jukhura are seven? In this title, the Khur Hurrites (morning) is visible, in the version "Giuori", the naughty "1Uir" (morning). Then Khurrita, too, semites?

Zerg Aldar 04/05/2014 19:35   Declare violation

Looks like you are deeply believed in the Scriptures of a man. Or obsessed with these scriptures.

People have always lived in and from this language is mixed.

Jewish "fuck" (consulting) comes from Ingush "Nach" (take). Ingush women still utter this word when they give out something. But the etymology shows that the word "fuck" is the parent's breast. See the word "NOKHA" (Chest).

Zerg Aldar 04.04.2014 07:20   Declare violation

Judah-Judi-Ehudio Jews on Persian-Juhud \ i on Arabic-Zhura-Zhuud-jugur-juhur on Turkic. All these words come from the word "Jew"

Abraham Removeni 2 04.07.2014 15:46   Declare violation

Chechens speak the Judah, Jugti-Sounds the same Juhudi. Perhaps the Father and Djigit. They were called the kingdom of Jews somewhere from 7 in N E. Jedid, renaming the 1st semender on the mountain of Tarka in Ninechkaya Makhachkala on Juda. Following, Tama in the Caucasus, Jed-en, meant the Jewish kingdom translated!

Interestingly, the fact of which is written, went to the Caucasus Jews from the army, not seeing Christian idolatry. And they adhered only to Saturday. Maybe there are Nakhchean Chechens.

And Tatyana Gracheva writes when they came from Persia Madaky at the beginning of the 6th century in N E. So in the Caucasus, Jews were already lived, touched by Judaism completely Jews, only the Saturday they kept. And, it would be sidewrd to the knees of Dana. These Jews from Persia brought those Jews to real religion and faith, turning them on their will in Judaism.

And there were an environment of Khazar, a very darkness that they were dark, flew into black. There were white Khazars, beautiful, high, absorbed and redheads. There could be only Jews in the Caucasus, because in the genes of Jews and Babylonians, perhaps Assyrians, There was a Genh Genh gene. Novokudonzar or Tsar David. This is only famous staff, and the people should also be red.

Speaking of Brit-Union, Britten Alia ... So the people of Judaian Danovo Knee went there. Angles, this is the printed people, Scots and the British. So, they have a chance of the Geny Men. Well, and the word Saxon itself means Isaak Son. Sonny Isaac. The first Europeans who have the word Son-Son at the end of the name. As Arabic-Simit, Ibrahim Ibn Muhammed

Abraham Removeni 2 04.07.2014 16:37   Declare violation

AM-RAM Multiple people. Now, only then God Naren A Amrome on Abraham. We have done it to make it the father of nations. And the father.R-in-a lot \ si.

Abraham refovery 2 07/04/2014 17:09   Declare violation

I completely agree with Andrei Zelevy. In the fact that these two people are the same people, or as he writes, were very close neighbors. But judging by genetics, rather we talk about the same people. "Hyl de "In Hebrew, Iyalya Ha Tarbut-" House of Culture "Well," Hur "Obviously, the name of the man of Jews. In fact, there is and always" Ben Hur "can score" Ben-Hur "and watch a film, about the fate of the Jewish family, in Ancient Israel, with payback by the Romans, Judea.

Abraham Removeni 2 04.07.2014 17:27   Declare violation

The only ethnic groups in the Caucasus, Jews and Chechens that burn fires in honor of the blog cell barley and bars, after harvesting, they sacrificed God from the harvest's assembled. The people will turn around and rejoice at the fires. Pascha, everything is cleaned including dishes. Belt and paint at home The children in a new one are surrounding the same traditions. Everyone is the same traditions. Read more Wash, the name of the pride of the crop is called with roughness. Bog Be Omer!

Abraham Removeni 2 04.07.2014 20:38   Declare violation

I have not watched this topic in the comments for a long time and did not answer. I apologize me.

About self-site of Jews. Hebrew Ehudi, Persian Jehudi, Arabic Jihad, Turkic "Djigit" and Naja "Jugti", are semantic units of the same word. In the original language (nakh), this word was uttered as "Ch1Ag Yes" (effort to do). The sound "h" goes into "J". See Türksk. "Chagay" - Jagai ".

The Hebrew root "Ivry" (crossing "has semantic relationship with the Nakhsky" APRI "(Channel), the Russian pretext" Pere ", etc. As a result, the Hebrew root" Ivry "has a huge number of" relatives "in many languages ​​of the world.

Consider biblical etymology outside the semantic relationships, as A. Zelev makes, is called "attracting the ears."

Zerg Aldo 17.08.2014 20:08   Declare violation

Already the name of Abraham as you write "My Father" is alien to the Chechen language since in the Chechen language father Yes (Dada).

Najskaya 1 Owl 1OhR is not sperm and mutually controlled from Arabic meaning groin.

Awrat, Aurat (Arab. عورة is a weak unprotected place, genitals) [1] - part of the body that Muslims are obliged to cover in front of other people. For women, Agrata is considered to be the whole body, except for the oval of the face and hands, for men - from the navel to the knees inclusive.

Abdulla Magomedov 09/10/2014 03:25   Declare violation

As for "Hyu Does Hyl de" (as a state, the situation. How does the Zerg writes, then Hyl here is the Arab mutualization حال- Case, the situation, the situation, كيف حالك? - How are you. Literally how your position is how you feel.

Zerg writes: It is possible that all the Old Testament "Gargaritians", "Gararityans", "Garody", "Agarian" and "Agaryan" are such a hanasy tribes as "Gergeza (Gargasites)", which were a prachite ethnos, which was included in Hatto-Khurrite Language Group (after the expulsion of Gixos from Egypt, a new wave of Hurrites settled in Canaan). It is characteristic that in antiquity (Wai), Nahi were known ("Geography" of Strabo, I thousand BC) as "Gargaray" (Har-Kharey), which, apparently, identically, the Biblical - "Khalei" (Hurri -Huri), i.e. Nakhi-Garea were Prahurrites (besides Nahkh Terek's valley, the term "Gargaray" was called in the I thousand BC. And the Karabakh Karabakh. It is assumed that this name happened from the Nakh-Hurrit word "Gargara" - "relative"

There is a complete absurdity. No one has never called Vainakh Gargaras as Gargarians are one of the Albanian (Caucasian) tribes that are among the ancestors of Dagestanis. If the zerg refers to the gargara-relative, then in the Ingush Hergar. confused. In this case, the Avarians are the most Gargara if they consider in such words as in the Avarian relative of the G1Agan. Rodality-G1ar.

G1Al- Defin the definition of Pobedannik Vatsg1al- DV brother. YCCG1AL-DV sister. Gargar - talk a lot. It must be borne in mind that the alphabet was created and the Gargarean language was created and the language was a religious preaching in Dagestan and another gangs in the past meant on the Avar Oratoric (religious speech) and that the most proving that the Gargarei language was considered the most difficult and wild from here and the astounding language pronunciation.

Strabo indicates that Keravnaya Mountains where the Gargaras dwells are called those parts of the Caucasian Range, which are adjacent to the Caspian Sea, Ie Northeast Mountains. This is the Mountain of Dagestan where Avars and Dargins live.

Zerg writes: For example, the Khurrit word "Atssets" - "Priest", which has been preserved in Vainakhsky in the form of "C1" and in the meaning - "Pelting Divine" (H. Bakaev "Khurrita"), entered into the form of "ACU" and In the meaning of "priest" in Sumerian language. In Hebrew, the term "Atsen" ("אֲצוּלָה") translates as "aristocracy"

Which is shying the Khurritsky ACS, it is relatives of Dagestan languages ​​for example in the Avarian Assyl Adult Adult Human.

The zerg writes: the Kharrit word "Chari" is quite compared - "Kolchuga", Akkada "Schiyam" in the same meaning, Wainkovskoe "Ch1OR (Chktor)" - "Shell, Cora" (H. Bakaev "Khurrita") with Hebrew "Shiriyon ( ןוירש) "-" Poles, armor "

Khurrite Chari close to Avar Charan Steel, Steel, Ringhag.

Zerg writes: We give some samples of "Nakhchinsko-Semitic lexical parallels." So, the proximity of the names among a number of terms, characterizes the vegetable world, was revealed. For example, (tree) "Spruce" in the Khurritsky language - "ACS", on ACCADE - "ASUCH" (Chechen "ASA" was preserved in the meaning of "stick, staff"), and in Hebrew "Spruce" - "Ashuhi (AISU) " Amour's Khurrites and Ambacha "Barbaris" mean - "Barbaris", but Vainakhskoe "Mujurg" means "Kalina" (H. Bakaev "Khurrita"), - just like in Hebrew "Murana" ("מוֹרָן") - "Kalina". Hurrites "Karahi" and the Akkada term "Karaphu" denote the "field under the ferry, etc.", and the words in Hebrew: "Karahat (תחַרַקָ)" means "PRAGALIN; Polyana, "and" Car (כַּר) "-" Luga, Pasture ".

If there is a spruce of this ASU, then Chechen ash is not close to him, but first to Avarsky Anse where he also means staff, stick.

Many things are stretched and mistaken. I did not write further. Chechensky is not one of the closest languages ​​to Hurritsky, and along with Dagestan languages ​​is evenly close to it, but not exaggerated as the Chechen descendant of Hurritsky and the rest is not. The Khurrite is archaic as the Avar and the end of 100% identical to the Avarian rather than the rest and the rest of it is close and Lezgin and part of Chechen. Without all languages, Chechen can not be close to the Hurritsky. And in general, Nakh-Dagestan languages ​​are not the descendants of Hurritsky and relative to him.

Abdulla Magomedov 09/10/2014 04:09   Declare violation

Something Abdul Magomedov confuses.

I can not remember that I wrote it somewhere.

Abdul! I do not understand why to attach me other people's words?

Zerg Aldar 01/06/2015 08:54   Declare violation

As for "Hyu Does Hyl de" (as a state, the situation. How does the Zerg writes, then Hyl here is the Arab mutualization حال- Case, the situation, the situation, كيف حالك? - How are you. Literally how your position is how you feel.

Abdul, if the nuclear "Hyl" and Arabic حال (affairs, business, the situation) have equality of meanings, then where is the evidence that Vainahi borrowed this word from Arabic? As opposed, on the contrary, in Arabic and Jewish, the weight of the words borrowed from Nakhsky.

Zerg Aldo 06.01.2015 09:06   Declare violation
Кто такие ассирийцы

Assyrians are one of the most mysterious and ancient peoples on Earth. Even after the collapse of the Great Assyrian Empire, existing seventeen centuries, the heritage of the ancient state continues to live in her descendants. Including in Russia.

Heirs of an ancient empire

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Assyria is one of the oldest empires that existed from the XXIV century BC. e. This state subjugated to itself many nations, and was located during the heyday of military power in the territories of modern Iraq, Iran, Egypt, Syria and Israel. Many Assyrias are familiar according to the famous laws of Hamurappi, among which there are also a biblical thesis "Eye OKO" (Leviticus 24-20).

The Assyrian king Ashurbanipal, who created the largest libraries of antiquity from us, is also widely known. Along with the achievements of culture, the Assyrians became famous for their cruelty in relation to the captured population and a special tactic of war, during which they certainly burned down all the enemy territories. Despite the fact that the empire in the VII century BC. e. Paw under the onslaught of numerous enemies, the people living on its territory still lives in many countries of the world and dreams of revivaling once a great state.

Modern Assyrians - the streams of the ancients?

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According to Assyrian organizations, people who call themselves the Assyrians in the world about four million. The consolidation of Assyrians contributed to their Christian religion and the general language - the Novoaramae, the most successful in relation to the Staroaraara, the language on which Jesus Christ preached.

However, not all scientists share the view that modern Assyrians genetically go beyond to the inhabitants of Assyria: some believe that they are the descendants of the accepan population of the empire, others - that the Assyrians mistakenly called European missionaries. Another fact is interesting: it was the mass integration of the Aramaic population that caused a strong blow to the strength of the Assyrian Empire, whose people spoke mainly in Akkadian.

Assyrians in Russia

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Anyway, the new Assyrians lived after the decay of the empire in the territory of the Arab Caliphate since the VII century, and in the Ottoman Empire and Persia - from XVI. However, during the Russian-Persian War at the end of the XIX century, from which Russia came out by the winner, the Tukmanchai peace treaty was concluded, according to which the Christian population of Persia had the right to move to Russian Armenia.

Many of the Assyrians took advantage of this opportunity, and began to move to Russia. In 1914, Assyrian diasporas were already in many cities of Russia, including in Moscow and St. Petersburg, many Assyrians received an education and became Russian subjects.

The second wave of migration of Assyrians to Russia began during the Persian company of the First World War: after the uprising in the Turkish rear of Assyrians and Armenians, the Russian troops came to the aid for help. From Assyrians, Russian military formed special battalions, which later fought with the Turks.

But the Assyrian population suffered greatly for his betrayal - during clashes with Turkish troops and forcible deportation, about a quarter of all Assyrians, hundreds of thousands of people died. This event entered the story as Assyrian Genocide during World War II.

National craft

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After the First World War, in 1919, the Assyrian State was proposed at the Paris Peace Conference, just as three decades later, Israel will be created with the help of the League of Nations.

In the 30s, the settlement of Assyrians in Brazil, Niger or Guiana was assumed. However, no one has supported the proposal, and the Assyrian refugees collided with new problems. Those who lived in the USSR were subjected to persecution due to religious beliefs, and later, after the Second World War and forced Deportation in Siberia, along with the Germans of the Volga region and other non-norny people.

Assyrians who returned from Siberia or avoiding deportation were not able to live urban life, not speaking in Russian or even not having a passport, and they had to look for ways to work. In this way, the shoe cleaning and repair of shoes - the Assyrians in Russia are engaged in this craft for more than a hundred years.

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Street shoemakers and clusters of Eastern exterior shoes in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other cities have long been an integral part of the city. In November 1920, Mikhail Kalinin ordered the "Assyrians to provide cleaning and repair of shoes," and in Leningrad, after the war, there was even a special artel "Designs", contributing to the employment of migrants.

Thus, there was a gradual integration of Assyrians to Russian Society. Subsequently, the Assyrians who are accustomed to the generic traditions settled so compactly that sometimes whole houses in Moscow were engaged only by them. And unusual Assyrian surnames quickly replaced Russian - Ben-yohanana, for example, turned into Ivanov.

Traditions of modern Assyrians

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In the 40s in the USSR, the first Assyrian football team appeared - "Moscow Clever". However, the Assyrians in Russia were not only cleaners of the shoes, and the ancient cultural heritage manifested itself to the fullness of the representatives of the diaspora. For example, before the First World War in Georgia, there was an Assyrian theater society, which was played by performances in Assyrian language.

Theatrians and builders, doctors and artists, Assyrians, regardless of their crafts, always firmly followed the religious beliefs and traditions of the community. They are proud to have retained their national language after almost three thousand years, and are sensitive to the execution of rites and rituals. Many young Assyrians even prefer campaigns with family in a community fashionable disco.

Assyrians love to celebrate together with the family of Christian holidays and the days of the memory of the Assyrian saints, the traditional dance of Sheyhani is dancing, Prahat cakes are preparing a dish, symbolizing the fall of Ninevia. The Moscow Assyrian Diaspora supports religious and national unity: there is a Assyrian church in the capital, the Temple of Mat Maryam on Dubrovka, in which there is also a school of Assyrian language and numerous events are held. Assyrian restaurants and online stores - all this is not funny anachronism, but the realities of modern Russia.

The anterior Asia is an amazing region, if only because people of the Assyrian people live here, once belonged to the Great State of Assyria. Now they settled all over the planet, but still be considered one of the most mysterious, ancient and amazing peoples of the world.

Where live (territory)

Most Assyrians live in Iraq, the smallest number number Georgia and Ukraine. Assyrians are many in the United States and Syria, as well as Sweden. In Russia, about 11,000 people live them. The cause of massive resettlement of people was the overthrow of Saddam Hussein. And even today, the Assyrians have to hide, as ISIL (the organization prohibited in the Russian Federation) is a threat to them. It is worth noting that the massive resettlement of the people began in the last century.

Story

Assyrians helped to unite Christianity. The formation of the people occurred among Muslims, Jews and Zoroastrians. At different times, Catholics affected the Assyrians, which led to the emergence of a new branch - Siro-Catholicism, Kurds, who joined the Assyrians in the war, as well as the Turks. They constantly had to experience the oppression and to withstand the attacks of the enemy. All this led to a significant decrease in the nationality. In the 20th century there were about a million people who called themselves Assyrians, most of the Ottomans were subject. The first world genocide continued, many men were sent to the war. Osmans destroyed even the elite, after which they began for the mass deportation of women and children. The persecution spread on the elderly, Muslim Osmans did not regret people on the road, so some simply failed to survive during the deportation. In Iran, a part of the Assyrians tried to fight back from the Kurdish population and Persians. Saved the presence of Russian troops, but in 1918 the Russians left the territory, after which the destruction of the Assyrians began, a significant part died from diseases. Some were able to hide in the territories controlled by Britain. The confiscation of land by the British in the Arab and Kurdish population was discontent, so the Assyrians were again under blow. As a result, most of the Iraq, the United States of America and Syria settle down.

Culture

The contribution to the global culture of Assyrians began for a long time. Even who wanted to be called competent, it was necessary to know Babylonian, Sumerian and Assyrian languages, as well as to own various dialects (for example, Business Babylonian). The workers in the office were obliged to teach the Akkadian language, the Aramaic was also required. The writing technique was special and depended on the material: papyrus, skin, clay. This was the reason for the emergence of unique writing and literature, which practically did not reach this day. The most famous literary work written in the 5th century BC, is a story about Achicare, telling about the kings of synthesierib and Asarhaddon. It is known, however, that the story has undergone many changes, so its accurate option remains a mystery. At the same time, it serves as a good material for understanding the life of the royal points of that time. The Assyrians did not develop particularly. However, they made up recipes, useful reference books, the simplest chemical formulas, astrological observations and medical treatises. Assyrians practiced in jurisprudence, the writings on Babylonian. The problem of studying scientific papers is to mix them with witchcraft teachings that priest wrote. There are really interesting moments: descriptions of military equipment, creating engineering structures, construction of fortresses. Assyrians have reached large heights in architectural business. The main material remained raw brick, and a stone was used for the facing. It was the Assyrians who used zigkults - a step-like tower. The buildings were decorated with relief and painting, which carved on the plates. Artists often portrayed hunters and animals. The images praised the kings, the army, stamped enemies. Modern Assyrians carefully stored and honor the culture of the ancestors and create their own. From the famous Assyrian modern work, you can mark the "Spicy fighter" - a collection of legends, stories and legends.

Folklore

The Assyrian folklore is interesting to Epos "Katyn Gabbara". It is completely translated into Russian and is partially published in English. The first volume of Epos talks about Tsar Tum, who faces the devil sidden (also Lilith), who attacked the population. She enslaves women and men, and children eats children. The king has to convene warriors to appeal them to courage and fight with the monster. But few of those who came to the call of the Tsar wishes to the fight. Only the brave Katyn dared to give the battle Lilith. In the second volume there is a story about the exploits of Katyn, which serves as a peculiar prehistory of the warrior. He will face the mysterious and incredibly strong woman. To defeat it, you need to raise curls, with which the brave katyn copes with ease. The second test becomes a battle with 2 bulls, attackers on residents of a small village. And with them Katyn copes easily. Next, he goes to the kingdom of Sidda (Lilith). Suddenly, he is a conductor telling his dangers - this is another test that checks the resistance of the mind of the young man. As soon as he invades a cave, closed by a marble door, evil spirits are plaintively begun to ask to drive a conductor, calling him an evil sorcerer. Katyn turns out to be persistent and ignores their voices, and after the stone shifts the "crown" belonging to Shidde. On this, the second end ends, and the reader returns to the Great Battle. The hero succeeds in winning Sidda, but at the end of the work the authors leave the mysterious message that hints that everything read is allegory to fight good and evil, which never ends.

A life

Children try to raise bold and honest. It is honesty that is considered the best quality in man. True, as the Assyrian themselves say, is the key to courage. To gossip, keep frivolity, so much in vain - all these are negative phenomena. In the Society of Assyrians, only generous, respecting senior, bold man can conquer authority. In families behind each child, they are closely monitored and always control the behavior. Agency is happiness and joy. The custom of hospitality prescribes to handle the guest as a messenger of heaven. The guest is important to comply with a certain etiquette, prescribing for a long time not to linger, not to drink a lot, not to ask extra questions. It is not accepted constantly going to visit, you need to do this at least every other day. An interesting way to have a relation to a woman. If a man worked and always played the head of the family, then the woman was raised to educate children. Work for her in principle was considered a punishment. Woman will be unhappy if she has to work. To leave the house, she could under the supervision of an elderly woman or one of the men's relatives. Now Assyrian girls are not forbidden to open persons.

Traditions

The traditions were formed over long centuries, so almost everyone looks rather unusual.

Wedding

Wedding customs are specific: Mountain inhabitants for matchmaking offer the girl the ring, which she can wear or give a sign of failure. At the plain assyrians, it is customary to kidnap the bride. Be sure to give off the girl, which indicates a proprietary attitude. If a woman belongs before the wedding, then after it is rightfully considered the property of a new family. Before organizing the wedding celebration, newlyweds turn to an astrologer who suggests the most successful day to legitimize the marriage. The day is arranged in the groom's house, after which the young people should hold three days. Then it's time to go to the house of my wife, where newlyweds will live together. Not so long ago, a woman needed to honor her husband's parents and unquestioned to obey them, otherwise it could wait for the divorce that was equated with the shame. Now the morals became a little different, so the Assyrians are no longer looking for couples only among the representatives of their people.

Holidays

The New Year is celebrated by Assyrians on April 1 and is called Hub Nissan. It was connected with the spill of the rivers Tiger and Euphrates. The spill meant the increase in soil fertility and the beginning of the yield season. Instead of New Year's ate, Assyrians used a tree called sacred. Drawings are preserved to this day, on which the fruits are visible similar to apples. Assyrians celebrate the Assumption of the Virgin, during which all people who have to live on the street are invited. Each guest is treated and shed, even if it is a completely unfamiliar man.

Religion

Conditionally Assyrians can be divided into representatives:

  • Assyrian Church of the East;
  • Chaldean Catholic Church;
  • Orthodox.

All branches are Christian. The Chaldean Church is formed from the priests studying in the Baghdad Patriarchal Seminary. Services are held in the Syrian language. The Assyrian Church of the East is also to East Syrian rites and is considered one of the most ancient eastern churches. Now both churches have good relations with each other and cooperate under the "Patriarchal" statement.

Tongue

Assyrian refer to the Newaaramy language. Linguists consider the newaarase part of the Syrian, which included in the composition as a dialect. The use of the language began from the 5th century to our era. The influence of the Akkadian language is traced in the vocabulary.

Life in different places / countries

In Armenia, the Assyrians are third in numbers. They arrived in the country after the Russian-Persian war, gradually founding three villages. Now Armenian Assyrians are engaged in gardening, grow grapes and cultivate cultures. Many of them became an intelligentsia, hold posts of officials. Difficulties in relationships with Armenians are not observed - the growth of mixed marriages is great. The population does not prohibit the study of Assyrian and teach it in rural schools. In Georgia there are about 2500 Assyrians. Basically, they live in major cities, know Georgian and Russian languages. They speak freely on Assyrian and own a special dialect of Novoarahai. The government contributes to the development and integration of the population with the Georgians, gives freedom of religion. The Assyrians came to Russia back in 1920. As a result of the First World War, more than 100 thousand people flew by flight, hiding in the Soviet Union. Then many have taken Orthodoxy, which was perceived negatively to the Assyrians themselves. The situation for them was aggravated by mass expulsion to Siberia and Transcaucasia. Now there is a partial assimilation of the Assyrians - a significant part of them does not know the native language and culture. Nevertheless, in Moscow there is an Assyrian church in which worship is underway.

Housing

The most interesting housing is the ancient houses of Assyrians. To know could afford at home with several rooms. The decoration of the premises was rich, and the richness was in a large number of mats, colored fabrics and carpets. The furniture was decorated with metal plates, encrusted with ivory and precious stones. The windows in the houses were located under the roof and were square. They used clay or wooden frames. The walls were plastered with lime. In the hot season, they were watered with water and in the process of evaporation thus cooled the room. Conventional citizens could not afford a lot of furniture, especially inlaid by expensive products from ivory. Maximum could have several stools or chairs, and a mat was used as a bed. Husband and wife slept on beds, and guests and children - just on the litters. The furnace was built in the yard, they also kept jugs with wine and separately with water. Water was used for washing and drinking. Next to the oven kept the boiler in which the water was boiled. Food took at the table: rich tables were big, the simple people could afford small tables on short legs. Women and men held in homes separately and only during meals sat down for a shared table. To protect against the evil eye or evil spirits, amulets were used in the form of terrible creatures. On each amulte, the conspiracy was cut out, which was distilled off. Some amulets hung over the doors, others were buried under the threshold. Ancient Assyrians had their own cult of gods, patronizing the owners at home. Their figures were also put in different places of the rooms. Each of them was periodically given to the sacrifice.

clothing

Weared Assyrians wore dresses and tunic shirts. The shirt was decorated with a fringe, sometimes used a woolen tissue of purple color. Common decorations served earrings, bracelets, necklaces. Knowing did not bother on expensive accessories, acquiring as largest bracelets made of precious metals. At the same time, in honor was bronze. Dresses were rejected by a wide belt.

  1. The clothes of artisans, warriors and farmers were an order of magnitude more modest. It was manifested primarily in the tunic that reached only to the knees.
  2. A little about women's outfits are known - most information was destroyed during wars and deportation. Data reached this day that the slaves were forbidden to wear bedspreads that hid face.
  3. Some of the warriors put special clothes. Representatives of light detachments put on lats with metal plates that defended the chest. Under them we were tunic. The headdress was a helmet similar to a helmet, with a coat, framing chin. Almost all men wore beards and curled hair. The absence of a beard pointed to belonging to eunuham.
  4. Assyrian king's special luxury was different. The top dress was embroidered with red threads, performed predominantly in dark blue color. The sleeves are short, and the waist was tightened by a wide belt, covered with fringe. Each brush was glass beads. From above, the king was bored with an epano, remotely similar to the vest, but very long. It was also expanded by patterns and richly decorated. On the head, he wore a tiara with a wide ribbon, embroidered with golden threads.

The cult of jewelry was developed at the Assyrians, unusually strongly. Earrings, bracelets, Pinsteen portrayed the symbols of the gods. Often bracelets were fixed above the elbows, sometimes on forearms. Together with the decorations we wore amulets, which also displayed divine emblems.

Food

Modern Assyrians retained the ancient customs of cooking. The poultry and animal meat were abundant due to developed cattle breeding, among the fermented milk products, cheeses received. Assyrian dishes are considered one of the most difficult in preparation, especially in terms of kiada rolling - multilayer dough. Assyrian soups usually have an egg base. Meat is served in finely chopped and mixed with other ingredients. At the same time, Kebab's popularity and chicken dishes submitted in Arab countries have not lost. Assyrians eat lavash, grain, legumes. Dishes are prepared in the focus and clay dishes, which greatly affects their taste. Vegetables and fruits are used in raw form, sometimes marinate, dried and quasse. They are necessarily added to soups, second dishes. In ancient times, the Assyrians noticed that vegetables contribute to the best absorption of meat. As a rule, vegetables are squeezed by spices: basil, mint, cilantro, black pepper. Merdochua is made of bustled oil and flour - a mixture, which is smeared on the pita. It is added to cinnamon, vanilla and cardamom, receiving a confectionery. The most popular soup in Assyrian cuisine is Shirva. Onions, greens, egg, red pepper are added to it, and some of the ingredients are pre-roasted. From sweets, a big love acquired a hassid, a dairy pudding of a leaf, jadzhik. It can be unambiguously that the Assyrian cuisine is very diverse, but it is quite difficult to master it because of the diversity of the recipe nuances that must be observed. Ancient Assyrians from poor layers ate bread, onions, garlic and vegetables. The most rich dishes for them were flour, fish. Meat could afford only for holidays. Slaves could eat fish exclusively in a dried form, bread ate barley, swaying onion or garlic. Knowing did not refuse to themselves in luxurious food, enjoyed meat, dug every dish wine. From the exotic, they preferred locust, there was also a lot of sweet dates from Babylon on the table. For example, they don't have a holistic ethnicity today, they still managed to become the people who preserved an ancient culture. This helps them not to assimilate, but integrate into other nations, creating marriages on equal rights in the same way as relationships with states of different countries.

Who are Assyrians

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