DNA analysis sets the presence or absence of a relative communication between humans. Also, using testing, you can establish a predisposition to various diseases or affiliation to a specific ethnic group. DNA test is carried out through the study of the biological material of the person being checked in a specialized laboratory.
Customers of such institutions often ask whether to make a DNA test for paternity at home. In order to find out, it is necessary to determine which requirements for the process of obtaining biological material.
Is it possible to check DNA to paternity at home?
At home, check the fact of biological kinship will not work. DNA testing at home lies in the fence of the buccal epithelium. This can be done independently using a special set of devices and following instructions.
The resulting material is sent to the medical laboratory. Experts use the biological data of the Father and the Child.
To obtain a more reliable result and simplify the procedure, the cells will additionally need. So that the results of the DNA test are full-fledged proof and were used in the future, it is necessary to comply with a certain procedure for the fence of the material.
It is recommended to take into account such nuances as:
- the use of a special sterile set received from the medical center;
- a clear adherence of the attached instruction during the fence of the material;
- Packaging results in the envelope and its departure to the laboratory for the study.
DNA test kit at home
If the procedure for obtaining DNA at home is not complied with (for example, a set is not used from the laboratory or the material is incorrectly packaged), its results will not be reliable evidence for presentation in court. To prevent such errors, it is necessary to study the instructions for receiving DNA at home in more detail.
The head of the cotton stick is strictly forbidden to touch their hands. It must be taken for the cropped end. During the procedure, a minimum of 10-12 movements up-down on the inner surface of the cheek are made, tightly pressing the head of the stick to the mucous membrane.
How to make a test at home?
The DNA DNA procedure does not take much time (on average, 4-5 minutes) is safe and painless for adults and children.
First, an employee of a medical center sends materials for the collection of a buccal epithelium, in this kit it includes:
- detailed instructions;
- sterile sticks;
- Multicolored envelopes.
The sample fence is made subject to the following rules:
- Prepare materials - cotton wands and paper envelopes in a certain amount per person who participates in the study. It is better to order such a set in the laboratory;
- Completely fill the envelopes. At each of them, you should specify the name, first name, patronymic, number, month and year of birth, degree of kinship, as well as the date of the intake of the biomaterial. If the procedure is anonymous, then instead of Fm.o. The number is indicated;
- Take a smear from the inner surface of the cheek in all checked people. Each requires two sticks that should be cut on one cotton head. If one of the checked people is already a born child, he will be checked and the alleged father. When you need to take a test for paternity during the pregnancy of a woman, a sample of a man's buccal epithelium is required (or a different type of sample) and mother's blood. In the latter case, this procedure is necessary in a specialized institution;
- Hold the wand after smear outdoors about 1 minute for evaporation of excess moisture;
- Place the sample in a clean envelope, the inner surface of which can not touch hands. Sealing envelopes is made strictly using a sticky strip;
- fully reassembled by re-taking the smear on the other side of the cheek;
- Send envelopes with samples in the laboratory.
So, at home, you can only get a biomaterial, its further research is carried out exclusively by experienced experts, in the walls of the laboratory.
Accuracy of genetic analysis
Reliability and maximum accuracy made DNA tests so popular as well as an indispensable procedure in the field of medical research and legal evidence. Genetic examination helps without errors identify a person's personality, establish a degree of kinship or diagnose complex hereditary diseases.
The accuracy of DNA test depends, first of all, on the degree of depth of the study and the volume of the material taken. To obtain the most accurate result, you need to analyze more DNA fragments. As mentioned above, a standard sample of the buccal epithelium is taken from the mucous membrane of the cheek.
If it is impossible to get a bucual epithelium, it is recommended to use samples of other origin:
- part of the cropped nail;
- blood stain or sperm;
- Objects of personal hygiene or clothing.
Despite the nonstandarity of these biomaterials, there is a chance to achieve an equally accurate result of the DNA study. The truthfulness of the test also affects the level of professionalism of the specialist and the correctness of the preparation of samples.
According to the 1991 International standards, the probability of exceptions should not be below 99.99% for a set of markers necessary for the study of DNA test for paternity.
In biology, there is also a specific wording: the accuracy of the test depends on the frequency of the presence of alleles (various forms of the same gene) transmitted from the father of the child.
If biological relationship is confirmed, its indicator is calculated as follows:
- First, the index is defined for each locus. The overall rate (CPI) is a product of the coefficients for all loci;
- Next, the probability indicator is entered in relative terms, which is 1.0: (1.0 + CPI).
The maximum probability of biological relationship with a positive result is 99.999999%. But, if during the analysis, the coincidence of DNA fragments of the alleged father and the child is revealed, one hundred percent negative result is given.
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Can I buy a set for analysis in a pharmacy?
Pharmacy points do not sell sets for DNA test. Since this type of study can be performed only in a laboratory, the kit is available for ordering in the appropriate institution.
In addition to sterile materials, the laboratory staff will provide detailed instructions and a paid inverse envelope that will be required to send samples.
The cost of the service includes:
- Fixtures for collecting material;
- study of samples for establishing or refuting paternity or other purposes;
- Expenses for sending an envelope.
The final price of laboratory testing will be no more than 8,000 rubles. In addition, the process of obtaining results is accompanied by confidentiality, regardless of how they are sent (by electronic or through a regular mailbox).
The results of DNA test become known after 3 days after receiving the biomaterial of the laboratory. Many institutions propose to undergo express research for a fee - in just 1 day. If the life situation does not tolerate deposit, you can use such a service, its result will be no less reliable.
In order to further use a DNA test for the purpose (for example, to challenge paternity in court), it is recommended to initially compete to this procedure. If there is a need to do this at home, you need to follow the instructions, observe sterility when the material is fence and its packaging.
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Today, almost 10% of fathers raise not their blood children in marriage, which Can be considered heirs Moreover, statistics speak, only about those cases where the relationship in court was not confirmed. And how many more such that they are not suspected of this fact. One of the main evidence of paternity establishment is a genetic examination, which is carried out by collecting DNA. DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid, which contains information about the genetic component of a person, which is transmitted from generation to generation. Thus, it is such an analysis that is key when establishing blood relations. How reliable this procedure is it possible to spend it at home and what conditions for collecting the material must be observed? We will tell about it further.
DNA paternity reliability
DNA thread is 46 chromosomes, namely the main carrier of the unique information of each individual. That is, each person has its genes, they allow you to transmit data as a sperm to the next generation. Cells that contain DNA are stored by the information about the person when it is conceived and can restore the necessary set of genetic signs. That is why the DNA thread is used to confirm or refutate the kinship of two people. If the child was conceived from the intended man, he is given a set of its genetic signs, as a result of which chromosomes from two biological materials (father and child) coincide and the test issues a positive result. Therefore, the accuracy of this test is high.
You can spend the DNA test for the establishment of paternity as after the child's birth and in the period of tooling the fetus, if the mother does not have a diagnosis of "threat of miscarriage."
The cost of analysis
The DNA test procedure is quite complicated, not all medical facilities are provided. Since it is necessary for its holding expensive equipment and qualified specialists, its price will not be cheap. Today, the DNA test to establish kinship can do it about 5,000-7,000 rubles for each participant. The price can sometimes come up to 10,000 rubles. It all depends on the region of residence, the medical center where you turned, as well as the urgency of the procedure. The standard price is for obtaining results for 14 days. If you need to find out the answer urgently, in 2-3 days, then you will have to pay two prices.
When the question of the establishment of paternity rises forced through the judiciary, many clients, having come to the laboratory, are interested in: "Is it possible to conduct an examination for free?". The law in this case laid all costs with the lawsuit on the plaintiff. If in the process of establishing paternity through the court, the fact of kinship will be proved, from which the defendant shied, the court may oblige him to compensate the wrath of the plaintiff.
The procedure for holding a dough for paternity at home
Many, heard the possibility of conducting a DNA test procedure at home, confuse it with reality. It is not necessary to compare this type of procedure with a pregnancy test or ovulation, with the help of express strips. Here it makes sense completely in the other. Under the term "DNA analysis of the house" is understood only only a fence of biological material, which is later sent to the medical laboratory. Usually, the analysis of the father and the child's biological data is provided, but the presence of a mother's cells will significantly simplify the test and increase the percentage of performance.
An important point, before carrying out the procedure at home is that the result obtained in such circumstances of the material fence will not be able to be allowed at court session.
So that the procedure passes through all the rules, the medical center employee sends a special set at your address. It consists of detailed instructions for the fence of the material, the set of sterile sticks, as well as multi-colored envelopes, where the material is placed. At home, the cells of the mucous membranes are usually provided, namely the epithelium on the inside of the cheeks. After successfully implementing the recommendations, the envelopes are sent to the laboratory, where the test itself is carried out directly.
What is needed for analyzes
The most frequent question before the DNA of the analysis to relatives is the subject of the studied, that is, the human biological material, which contains the necessary genetic information. So, as a material for conducting genetic examination from father and child, the following may appear:
- sulfur from ear;
- stains on the fabric of natural human secretions;
- chewing gum.
If there is no problems with the fence of the material, the laboratory staff advise to provide saliva from the inside of the cheeks, since these cells are a buccal epithelium.
The task of a specialist is to investigate several fragments of a molecule that contains genetic data to make sure several times in the authenticity of the results. That is why it is best to carry out this procedure in the walls of the laboratory, so that different external factors do not affect even the slightest share of deviations.
It is very important to comply with the rules for the fence of the material, which can directly reflect on the accuracy of the test results. This is especially true of those people who chose the collection of biological material at home.
- In no case cannot be touched by hand to the subject of the fence, for this it is necessary to use gloves and sterile tweezers, which after places the material into a special container;
- If this is a toothbrush, then its service life should not exceed the week;
- If there are spots on clothes, they need to be carefully cut with scissors, and after also place tweezers in a sterile envelope or container;
- Chewing gum or cigarettes are pre-dried;
- Hair is available for analysis only with bulbs and desirable about 10 pcs.;
- You can collect saliva with a sterile cotton wand.
If you collect biological material at home, it is very important to observe not only the above rules relating to individual items, but also to trace so that during their storage (for example, if it is a chewing gum or cigarette cigarette), nobody touched them. Otherwise, the results will be distorted.
After passing the material under study at the designated period, you get the result of DNA test. The results will be displayed on the form, where information on two or more research participants will be presented. The main thing here is a record of the output of the conducted research and the conclusion of a specialist - to confirm or refute the coincidence. If the answer is positive, then the probability of 99.9% will be in withdrawal. Many ask the question: "Why not 100%?". And all because 0.01% is assigned to exceptional cases that may occur in life, for example, when the biological father has a twin brother and its biological materials were filed. But if similarities with genes are not found, the result will be 100%. Here the error is excluded.
Is it possible to fool the test
No matter how absurd it sounded, but the results of DNA expertise can be distorted. If this action has happened intentionally, then for this kind of act faces criminal liability and customer and the contractor. Of course, we all understand that the price of the issue is worth it. But unintentionally authentic results can be distorted as a result of the substitution of biological material in the laboratory. This in practice occurs when judicial authorities are not involved in the examination in the establishment of paternity. Since if the expertise directs the court during the proceedings, the DNA test runs on strict rules, in proven medical centers, with a detailed report, as well as a photo report, and at the presence of an authorized person.
If you doubt the results of genetic examination, you can request its re-conduction, even if paternity is established in court.
To date, leading scientists of the world have proven that it is possible to artificially fake samples of saliva and blood in the presence of someone else's biological material. This happens with the help of high-tech equipment, which is able to synthesize the DNA molecule. But any laboratory cannot do this, as it needs access to the base of genomes, as well as modern technologies that are not in wide availability.
Consequently, the DNA test to establish paternity is the only method of determining kinship with high accuracy. Despite the cheap price, as well as the duration of the results of the results, the analysis of DNA to paternity is reliable and as accurately as possible, anything confirms or refutes the fact of a relative communication. That is why in court proceedings, the results of genetic examination play a decisive role.
DNA testing is an advanced technique that allows with high accuracy Conduct DNA analysis Related related communication, predisposition to various diseases, belonging to a specific ethnic group. This type of research Conducted in the conditions of the certified laboratory "DTL" , Deliver biomaterial samples can be as in the laboratory itself Moscow and in its official offices.
At the same time, customers often ask the question: how to make DNA test at home and what is necessary for this ? Since samples of the bucual epithelium are most often used to analyze, the fence of such a material can be made independently. The only condition is to use recommended materials and strictly follow the instructions.
How to make DNA test at home yourself
So, Is it possible to make a DNA test at home ? Directly genetic research is carried out in laboratory conditions with experienced experts. And the fence of biomaterial samples is quite possible independently.
Detailed instructions will help make it fast and right :
- It is necessary to prepare materials - cotton wands and clean paper envelopes at the rate of each person who is involved in the study. The best way - Order a special set in the DTL laboratory .
- The envelope indicates personal information - surname, name, patronymic, date of birth, degree of kinship and the date of the intake of biomaterial; If the procedure is anonymous, then instead of Fm.o. Specifies the number.
- To take a smear from the inner surface of the cheek, one person will require two wands that should be cut on one cotton head.
- IMPORTANT! Cotton head categorically impossible to touch hands !
- The wand should be carefully taken for the cropped end and make a fence of the biomaterial from the inner surface of the cheek. To do this, make at least ten movements up-down, trying to tightly press your cotton head to the mucous membrane.
- After smear, the wand needs Hold outdoors about 60 seconds So that excessive moisture evaporated.
- After that, the sample is placed in a clean envelope, the inner surface of which can also be touched by hand.
- The procedure is completely repeated But the smear is already taken on the other side of the cheek.
- When the samples of the biomaterial of one person are assembled, the envelope is sealing Exclusively using adhesive strip .
Thus, the samples of the visual epithelium for conducting genetic examination are made. The procedure takes an average of 4-5 minutes is painless and absolutely safe for adults and children, the collected samples are quite enough to carry out a full-fledged DNA test dance in Moscow and many other tests .
It should be noted that if necessary Test for paternity during pregnancy, then this requires not only a sample of a buccal epithelium, but also the blood of the mother. You can talk more about this. learn from consultants of our site .
DNA analysis accuracy at home
If you do not have the opportunity to visit our Labaratoria or her official representation, you can take a sample of DNA at home Observing the instructions. If everything is done correctly, then as a result of the study, you can not doubt, it will be absolutely reliable and objective. The accuracy of the result is up to 100.0%.
If you need consulting assistance - contact our specialists on the specified phones and get detailed answers to all your questions.
How to get a set for a DNA test at home
To take samples, you can use pharmacy ward sticks, but we recommend ordering Special brand set for self-procedure . You can place an order directly on the website of our laboratory and absolutely free. Our consultants, if necessary, will provide professional assistance.
The article was edited: 2018-06-01
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Analysis for paternity, or as a DNA study allows you to establish a fact of kinship
According to experts, the DNA analysis on the establishment of paternity is the most popular type of DNA studies. Situations in people who add to laboratories for holding genetic analyzes, different: young parents want to know exactly who is a child's father, adults are trying to find a birthday. Now this analysis is available to everyone at an affordable price.
How is the analysis of DNA on paternity: stages of genetic research
The basis of the analysis of DNA to paternity is the PCR method (polymerase chain reaction). How we all remember from the school textbook of biology, half of the genetic material, the child inherits from his father, half - from the mother. With the PCR method, many DNA copies are created, and then a specialist with special equipment compares certain areas of DNA - locuses. The more locuses are compared, the more accurate the result, since the single coincidence may be a simple accident, but if they coincide, for example, 15 loci, it is almost a complete genutional warranty.
DNA analysis for paternity is a high-tech, painstaking and very complex process. Usually results have to wait 10-15 business days, although in special cases they can be obtained for 4 working days, but for an additional fee. Duration depends on the number of compared loci - usually 14 of them, but in some laboratories are analyzed 20-30: it makes the result even more accurately, but requires more time.
Can I believe the results of DNA analysis?
DNA analysis on the definition of paternity is very accurate. His accuracy of the most pessimistic data is 99%, although in fact this indicator is even higher. 100 percent accuracy is impossible for the reason that it is impossible to ensure that the father has no twin, because, as it is known, DNA of one-way twins is identical.
Interesting fact PCR method is used not only to establish kinship. In the same way, today they are diagnosed with infectious diseases in the earliest stages, only in this case, not human DNA, but DNA bacteria or RNA viruses is replicated.
Instructions for those who want to establish the fact of kinship
For patients clinics, paternity analysis - the procedure is very simple. You need to contact the laboratory or a medical center, offering such services, and pass the biomaterial. The material is also closed in a child, and the alleged father. Sometimes, for even greater reliability of the result, the biomaterial is taken from the mother, but it is not at all necessary.
The biomaterial is usually used by saliva or cell scraping from the inner surface of the cheek. This is a simple and painless procedure. For such a study, hair and blood is also suitable, but they are taken much less. Blood is often used to determine fatherhood before delivery - today's technologies allow such research. Previously, for these purposes, ferrous water was used, the fence of which was conjugate with the risk and for the mother, and for the child, but now it became possible to allocate a child's DNA from the blood of the mother.
DNA analysis to paternity does not require special training. If you take blood, the analysis should not be carried out earlier than six months after blood transfusion. Saliva and scraping usually give up on an empty stomach.
Take a sample of saliva or cells of the oral mucosa can even at home - with a sterile container and cotton sticks. Kits for the intake of biomaterial at home are sold on the Internet. The sample is packaged in the container and is sent to the laboratory, and in a few days you get the answer. If everything is so simple and can be analyzed anonymously, why the laboratory suggest a DNA analysis to paternity? Why go to the medical center?
The fact is that such an anonymous result has no legal force. There is nothing surprising in this - the specialist does not know whose sample was sent to the study. If such an analysis is needed not to satisfy curiosity, but for a matter, you still have to come to the laboratory personally. Moreover, not any medical institution is suitable: you need a laboratory having a relevant license. When the material is fence, it will be necessary to present a passport (or another document confirming personality), and this is necessary for a child. Only after that, the specialist can confirm that the tests were taken from concrete people.
The study, the results of which can be recognized by the court, is always carried out only on the conditions of voluntary consent of all participating persons. Before the beginning of the analysis, the customer is the one who pays for the study - concludes a written contract with the laboratory.
How to decipher DNA analysis on paternity detection
After the analysis is produced, the customer will receive a form in which all persons who have gone biomaterial are marked, and the estimated degree of kinship in the percentage.
Revealing the degree of kinship, doctors avoid categorical allegations and with a positive result they write that "Rodium cannot be excluded." The probability is denoted as a percentage and when detecting kinship is usually 98-99.9%. As we have already spoken, 100% of the coincidence can not be, as it is impossible to completely exclude the presence of a twin brother at the father. However, such a chance in principle is small - and it is very incredible that the father does not know about him. Such turns are characteristic, rather, for the plots of low-budget serials, in reality there are no such cases.
The negative result is formulated more unequivocally. If no coincidences are found, then the father of the child is definitely not the person, the sample of the DNA of which was studied. The error is impossible here.
Sometime, the analysis of DNA to establish paternity was very expensive, but now it has become much more affordable. At the same time, the exact number is not easy to call, since the price of DNA analysis to paternity is made up of many factors.
- First, this is the pricing policy of the laboratory. Some position itself as economics of economy class, others work for a wealthy clientele. The interior, convenience of location, the level of service affects the price of analyzes.
- Secondly, the cost depends on the biomaterial. Modern technologies allow you to analyze and non-standard samples: hair, nails, even cigarettes, on which saliva traces remained. But this is done far from all laboratories, and the price of such a study is much higher.
- Thirdly, the cost depends on the number of participants in the analysis. If all three are present - the mother, father and child - the price will be higher if only samples of the biomaterial of the child and the father are investigated - below.
- Fourth, execution timing. There is nothing strange that for express analysis will have to pay extra.
- And finally, in the fifth, the care of DNA verification. The more locuses, the more expensive.
On average, the price of DNA analysis to establish paternity begins from 17,000 and can reach 40,000 rubles.
Speaking about DNA analysis to paternity, it is impossible to ignore the fact that the study is affecting delicate areas of privacy and often becomes a difficult test for the family. However, there are situations where it is impossible to avoid it. The results of the DNA test for paternity made in a certified laboratory are accepted as evidence in court. They are also necessary if you need a transflection of organs. Finally, some already quite adult people want to go through this test to find their parents. Whatever the reason that prompted you to go through this analysis, choose a serious and responsible laboratory.